1. Trackbacks là gì?
Trackbacks được phát triển đầu tiên bởi SixApart, là chủ sở hữu gói blog MovebleType. SixApart đã có một bài giới thiệu rất đầy đủ về trackbacks.
Tóm lược lại định nghĩa đã được SixApart nhắc đến, nói TracbBack là một giao thức được tạo ra như một công cụ giao tiếp giữa các website. Nói cách khác, Blogger A muốn nói với Blogger B rằng “đây là cái bạn quan tâm” thì Blogger A gửi một TrackBack ping đến Blogger B.
Chúng ta tóm lược quá trình như sau:
+ Blogger A viết một entry về bất kỳ vấn đề nào đó trên blog của mình.
+ Blogger B muốn comment trên blog của Blogger A, nhưng lại muốn người đọc trên blog của mình nhìn thấy những gì mà mình đã nói trên blog của Blogger A, và có thể viết comment cho blog của Blogger A trên chính blog của Blogger B.
+ Blogger B viết trên chính blog của mình và gửi một trackback đến blog của Blogger A.
+ Blog của Blogger A nhận được trackback, và hiển thị nó dưới dạng một comment trên bài viết gốc của Blogger A. Comment này chứa một link đến bài viết của Blogger B.
Ý tưởng này giúp cho các bài thảo luận được giới thiệu tới nhiều người hơn (người đọc của cả Blogger A và Blogger B có thể theo các link để đọc bài viết của người khác), và có một mức xác thực cho các trackback comment bởi vì nguồn gốc của chúng là từ các blog khác. Tiếc rằng, các trackback gửi đến thường không thực sự được xác nhận, và thậm chí chúng còn có thể là giả mạo.
Hầu hết các trackback gửi tới Blogger A chỉ là một vài câu tóm tắt (được gọi là “excerpt”) của những gì mà Blogger B đã nói. Nó giống như một sự khiêu khích, khiến cho Blogger A (và người đọc của anh ta) xem một phần mà Blogger B đã viết, và khuyến khích họ click vào để ghé thăm Blogger B để đọc nốt phần còn lại.
Trackback của Blogger B gửi tới Blogger A thường được post cùng với tất cả các comment khác. Điều này có nghĩa là Blogger A có thể chỉnh sửa nội dung của trackback trên chính server của mình, và cũng có nghĩa là toàn bộ ý tưởng của “việc xác thực” gần như chưa được giải quyết (Lưu ý: Blogger A chỉ có thể chỉnh sửa nội dung của trackback trên blog của anh ta. Anh ta không thể chỉnh sửa được bài viết trên blog của Blogger B).
2. Pingbacks là gì?
Pingbacks được thiết kế để giải quyết một số vấn đề với trackback. Các tài liệu chính thức của pingback cho thấy có vẻ pingbacks tốt hơn so với trackback.
Ví dụ: Blogger A viết một bài rất hay trên blog của mình. Blogger B đọc bài viết của Blogger A và comment trên bài viết này, đồng thời linkback đến bài viết gốc của Blogger B. Bằng việc sử dụng pingback, phần mềm của Blogger B có thể tự động thông báo cho Blogger A biết bài viết của Blogger B đã được liên kết bài viết của Blogger A, và phần mềm của Blogger A có thể làm điều tương tự, tức là cũng thông báo cho Blogger B biết bài viết của Blogger A cũng đã liên kết đến bài viết của Blogger B.
3. Có ba khác biệt cơ bản giữa pingback và trackback, đó là:
+ Ping back và trackback sử dụng các công nghệ giao tiếp rất khác nhau (XML-RPC và HTTP POST)
+ Pingback hỗ trợ việc tự động phát hiện, tức là phần mềm tự động tìm kiếm các link trong bài viết, và tự động thử pingback đến các URL đó. Trong khi đó trackback phải làm bằng tay bằng cách điền URL cần trackback.
+ Pingback không gửi đi bất cứ nội dung gì.
Cách tốt nhất hiểu về pingback là coi nó như những comment từ xa:
– Blogger A viết một bài viết trên blog của anh ta.
– Blogger B viết trên chính blog của cô ấy và liên kết đến bài viết của Blogger A. Liên kết này sẽ tự động gửi một pingback đến Blogger A khi cả hai blog đều bật chức năng pingback.
– Blogger A nhận được pingback này, sau đó blog của Blogger A tự động đi tới bài viết của Blogger B để xác nhận việc pingback đã được thực hiện.
Pingback thường chỉ được hiển thị trên blog của Blogger A như là một link đến bài viết của Blogger B. Theo cách này, chủ các blog không có quyền chỉnh sửa các pingback trên blog của mình (khác với trackback, người nhận được trackback có thể chỉnh sửa nội dung tóm tắt của nó). Quá trình xác nhận tự động đưa ra một mức xác thực và làm cho việc giả mạo pingback khó hơn rất nhiều.
Một số người cho rằng trackback có lợi thế hơn bời vì người đọc của Blogger A có thể ít nhất cũng xem được một chút những gì Blogger B viết, và sau đó quyết định họ có muốn đọc tiếp hay không. Một số người khác lại cho rằng pingback hay hơn vì họ có thể tạo các kết nối có thể xác minh được giữa các bài viết.
4. Xác minh Pingbacks và Trackbacks
Các comment trên các blog thường bị phê bình là thiếu tin cậy, vì ai cũng có thể viết bất cứ điều gì bằng bất cứ cái tên nào họ thích: không có quá trình xác minh nào để chắc chắn rằng có phải người đó viết hay không. Cả trackback và pingback đều có mục đích là cung cấp các cách thức xác minh cho việc viết comment trên blog
Introduction to Blogging
What is a “blog” ?
“Blog” is an abbreviated version of “weblog,” which is a term used to describe web sites that maintain an ongoing chronicle of information. A blog features diary-type commentary and links to articles on other Web sites, usually presented as a list of entries in reverse chronological order. Blogs range from the personal to the political, and can focus on one narrow subject or a whole range of subjects.
Many blogs focus on a particular topic, such as web design, home staging, sports, or mobile technology. Some are more eclectic, presenting links to all types of other sites. And others are more like personal journals, presenting the author’s daily life and thoughts.
Generally speaking (although there are exceptions), blogs tend to have a few things in common:
- A main content area with articles listed chronologically, newest on top. Often, the articles are organized into categories.
- An archive of older articles.
- A way for people to leave comments about the articles.
- A list of links to other related sites, sometimes called a “blogroll”.
- One or more “feeds” like RSS, Atom or RDF files.
Some blogs may have additional features beyond these. Watch this short video for a simple explanation for what a blog is.
The Blog Content
Content is the raison d’être for any web site. Retail sites feature a catalog of products. University sites contain information about their campuses, curriculum, and faculty. News sites show the latest news stories. For a personal blog, you might have a bunch of observations, or reviews. Without some sort of updated content, there is little reason to visit a web site more than once.
On a blog, the content consists of articles (also sometimes called “posts” or “entries”) that the author(s) writes. Yes, some blogs have multiple authors, each writing his/her own articles. Typically, blog authors compose their articles in a web-based interface, built into the blogging system itself. Some blogging systems also support the ability to use stand-alone “weblog client” software, which allows authors to write articles offline and upload them at a later time.
Want an interactive website? Wouldn’t it be nice if the readers of a website could leave comments, tips or impressions about the site or a specific article? With blogs, they can! Posting comments is one of the most exciting features of blogs.
Most blogs have a method to allow visitors to leave comments. There are also nifty ways for authors of other blogs to leave comments without even visiting the blog! Called “pingbacks” or “trackbacks“, they can inform other bloggers whenever they cite an article from another site in their own articles. All this ensures that online conversations can be maintained painlessly among various site users and websites.
The Difference Between a Blog and CMS?
Software that provides a method of managing your website is commonly called a CMS or “Content Management System”. Many blogging software programs are considered a specific type of CMS. They provide the features required to create and maintain a blog, and can make publishing on the internet as simple as writing an article, giving it a title, and organizing it under (one or more) categories. While some CMS programs offer vast and sophisticated features, a basic blogging tool provides an interface where you can work in an easy and, to some degree, intuitive manner while it handles the logistics involved in making your composition presentable and publicly available. In other words, you get to focus on what you want to write, and the blogging tool takes care of the rest of the site management.
WordPress is one such advanced blogging tool and it provides a rich set of features. Through its Administration Panels, you can set options for the behavior and presentation of your weblog. Via these Administration Panels, you can easily compose a blog post, push a button, and be published on the internet, instantly! WordPress goes to great pains to see that your blog posts look good, the text looks beautiful, and the html code it generates conforms to web standards.
If you’re just starting out, read Getting Started with WordPress, which contains information on how to get WordPress set up quickly and effectively, as well as information on performing basic tasks within WordPress, like creating new posts or editing existing ones.
Things Bloggers Need to Know
In addition to understanding how your specific blogging software works, such as WordPress, there are some terms and concepts you need to know.
A blog is also a good way to keep track of articles on a site. A lot of blogs feature an archive based on dates (like a monthly or yearly archive). The front page of a blog may feature a calendar of dates linked to daily archives. Archives can also be based on categories featuring all the articles related to a specific category.
It does not stop there; you can also archive your posts by author or alphabetically. The possibilities are endless. This ability to organize and present articles in a composed fashion is much of what makes blogging a popular personal publishing tool.
A Feed is a function of special software that allows “Feedreaders” to access a site automatically looking for new content and then post updates about that new content to another site. This provides a way for users to keep up with the latest and hottest information posted on different blogging sites. Some Feeds include RSS (alternately defined as “Rich Site Summary” or “Really Simple Syndication”), Atom or RDF files. Dave Shea, author of the web design weblog Mezzoblue has written a comprehensive summary of feeds.
A blogroll is a list, sometimes categorized, of links to webpages the author of a blog finds worthwhile or interesting. The links in a blogroll are usually to other blogs with similar interests. The blogroll is often in a “sidebar” on the page or featured as a dedicated separate web page. BlogRolling and blo.gs are two websites that provide some interesting functions or help related to blogrolls. These sites provide methods for users to maintain these rolls effortlessly and integrate them into weblogs. WordPress has a built-in Link Manager so users do not have to depend on a third party for creating and managing their blogroll.
A feed is a machine readable (usually XML) content publication that is updated regularly. Many weblogs publish a feed (usually RSS, but also possibly Atom and RDF and so on, as described above). There are tools out there that call themselves “feedreaders”. What they do is they keep checking specified blogs to see if they have been updated, and when the blogs are updated, they display the new post, and a link to it, with an excerpt (or the whole contents) of the post. Each feed contains items that are published over time. When checking a feed, the feedreader is actually looking for new items. New items are automatically discovered and downloaded for you to read. Just so you don’t have to visit all the blogs you are interested in. All you have to do with these feedreaders is to add the link to the RSS feed of all the blogs you are interested in. The feedreader will then inform you when any of the blogs have new posts in them. Most blogs have these “Syndication” feeds available for the readers to use.
One of the most exciting features of blogging tools are the comments. This highly interactive feature allows users to comment upon article posts and link to your posts and comment on and recommend them. These are known as trackbacks and pingbacks . We’ll also discuss how to moderate and manage comments and how to deal with the annoying trend in “comment spam”, when unwanted comments are posted to your blog.
In a nutshell, TrackBack was designed to provide a method of notification between websites: it is a method of person A saying to person B, “This is something you may be interested in.” To do that, person A sends a TrackBack ping to person B.
A better explanation is this:
- Person A writes something on their blog.
- Person B wants to comment on Person A’s blog, but wants her own readers to see what she had to say, and be able to comment on her own blog
- Person B posts on her own blog and sends a trackback to Person A’s blog
- Person A’s blog receives the trackback, and displays it as a comment to the original post. This comment contains a link to Person B’s post
The idea here is that more people are introduced to the conversation (both Person A’s and Person B’s readers can follow links to the other’s post), and that there is a level of authenticity to the trackback comments because they originated from another weblog. Unfortunately, there is no actual verification performed on the incoming trackback, and indeed they can even be faked.
Most trackbacks send to Person A only a small portion (called an “excerpt”) of what Person B had to say. This is meant to act as a “teaser”, letting Person A (and his readers) see some of what Person B had to say, and encouraging them all to click over to Person B’s site to read the rest (and possibly comment).
Person B’s trackback to Person A’s blog generally gets posted along with all the comments. This means that Person A can edit the contents of the trackback on his own server, which means that the whole idea of “authenticity” isn’t really solved. (Note: Person A can only edit the contents of the trackback on his own site. He cannot edit the post on Person B’s site that sent the trackback.)
SixApart has published an official trackback specification.
For example, Yvonne writes an interesting article on her Web log. Kathleen reads Yvonne’s article and comments about it, linking back to Yvonne’s original post. Using pingback, Kathleen’s software can automatically notify Yvonne that her post has been linked to, and Yvonne’s software can then include this information on her site.
There are three significant differences between pingbacks and trackbacks, though.
- Pingbacks and trackbacks use drastically different communication technologies (XML-RPC and HTTP POST, respectively).
- Pingbacks do not send any content.
The best way to think about pingbacks is as remote comments:
- Person A posts something on his blog.
- Person B posts on her own blog, linking to Person A’s post. This automatically sends a pingback to Person A when both have pingback enabled blogs.
- Person A’s blog receives the pingback, then automatically goes to Person B’s post to confirm that the pingback did, in fact, originate there.
The pingback is generally displayed on Person A’s blog as simply a link to Person B’s post. In this way, all editorial control over posts rests exclusively with the individual authors (unlike the trackback excerpt, which can be edited by the trackback recipient). The automatic verification process introduces a level of authenticity, making it harder to fake a pingback.
Some feel that trackbacks are superior because readers of Person A’s blog can at least see some of what Person B has to say, and then decide if they want to read more (and therefore click over to Person B’s blog). Others feel that pingbacks are superior because they create a verifiable connection between posts.
Verifying Pingbacks and Trackbacks
Comments on blogs are often criticized as lacking authority, since anyone can post anything using any name they like: there’s no verification process to ensure that the person is who they claim to be. Trackbacks and Pingbacks both aim to provide some verification to blog commenting.
Comment Moderation is a feature which allows the website owner and author to monitor and control the comments on the different article posts, and can help in tackling comment spam. It lets you moderate comments, & you can delete unwanted comments, approve cool comments and make other decisions about the comments.
Comment Spam refers to useless comments (or trackbacks, or pingbacks) to posts on a blog. These are often irrelevant to the context value of the post. They can contain one or more links to other websites or domains. Spammers use Comment Spam as a medium to get higher page rank for their domains in Google, so that they can sell those domains at a higher price sometime in future or to obtain a high ranking in search results for an existing website.
Spammers are relentless; because there can be substantial money involved, they work hard at their “job.” They even build automated tools (robots) to rapidly submit their spam to the same or multiple weblogs. Many webloggers, especially beginners, sometimes feel overwhelmed by Comment Spam.
There are solutions, though, to avoiding Comment Spam. WordPress includes many tools for combating Comment Spam. With a little up front effort, Comment Spam can be manageable, and certainly no reason to give up weblogging.
Permalinks are the permanent URLs to your individual weblog posts, as well as categories and other lists of weblog postings. A permalink is what another weblogger will use to refer to your article (or section), or how you might send a link to your story in an e-mail message. Because others may link to your individual postings, the URL to that article shouldn’t change. Permalinks are intended to be permanent (valid for a long time).
“Pretty” Permalinks is the idea that URLs are frequently visible to the people who click them, and should therefore be crafted in such a way that they make sense, and not be filled with incomprehensible parameters. The best Permalinks are “hackable,” meaning a user might modify the link text in their browser to navigate to another section or listing of the weblog. For example, this is how the default Permalink to a story might look in a default WordPress installation:
How is a user to know what “p” represents? Where did the number 423 come from?
In contrast, here is a well-structured, “Pretty” Permalink which could link to the same article, once the installation is configured to modify permalinks:
One can easily guess that the Permalink includes the date of the posting, and the title, just by looking at the URL. One might also guess that hacking the URL to be /archives/2003/05/ would get a list of all the postings from May of 2003. Pretty (cool). For more information on possible Permalink patterns in WordPress, see Using Permalinks.
Blog by email
Some blogging tools offer the ability to email your posts directly to your blog, all without direct interaction through the blogging tool interface. WordPress offers this cool feature. Using email, you can now send in your post content to a pre-determined email address & voila! Your post is published!
If you’re using Pretty Permalinks, the Post Slug is the title of your article post within the link. The blogging tool software may simplify or truncate your title into a more appropriate form for using as a link. A title such as “I’ll Make A Wish” might be truncated to “ill-make-a-wish”. In WordPress, you can change the Post Slug to something else, like “make-a-wish”, which sounds better than a wish made when sick.
Excerpts are condensed summaries of your blog posts, with blogging tools being able to handle these in various ways. In WordPress, Excerpts can be specifically written to summarize the post, or generated automatically by using the first few paragraphs of a post or using the post up to a specific point, assigned by you.
Plugins are cool bits of programming scripts that add additional functionality to your blog. These are often features which either enhance already available features or add them to your site.
WordPress offers simple and easy ways of adding Plugins to your blog. From the Administraton Panel, there is a Plugin Page. Once you have uploaded a Plugin to your WordPress plugin directory, activate it from the Plugins Management SubPanel, and sit back and watch your Plugin work. Not all Plugins are so easily installed, but WordPress Plugin authors and developers make the process as easy as possible.
Basics-A Few Blogging Tips
Starting a new blog is difficult and this can put many people off. Some may get off to a good start only to become quickly discouraged because of the lack of comments or visits. You want to stand out from this crowd of millions of bloggers, you want to be one of the few hundred thousand blogs that are actually visited. Here are some simple tips to help you on your way to blogging mastery:
- Post regularly, but don’t post if you have nothing worth posting about.
- Stick with only a few specific genres to talk about.
- Don’t put ‘subscribe’ and ‘vote me’ links all over the front page until you have people that like your blog enough to ignore them (they’re usually just in the way).
- Use a clean and simple theme if at all possible.
- Enjoy, blog for fun, comment on other peoples’ blogs (as they normally visit back).
Trackbacks are a way to notify legacy blog systems that you’ve linked to them. If you link other WordPress blogs they’ll be notified automatically using pingbacks, no other action necessary.
Think of trackbacks as the equivalent of acknowledgements and references at the end of an academic paper or chapter in a text book.
To send a trackback, add the trackback URI from the other blog post to the Send Trackbacks module in your blog post before you publish it. A trackback URI from a WordPress blog will end with /trackback/.
How do I send a Trackback
Go to the post on the other person’s blog and look for the ‘Trackback URI’ or similar.
Once you have that link you need to copy the URL of the link.
In Firefox, Right-click on the link and Copy Link Location.
In Internet Explorer, Right-click on the link and Copy Shortcut.
Back on your blog, scroll down from the editor to the Trackbacks module and paste the URL into that box. If the blog where it was copied from is a WordPress blog, the URL will end with /trackback/.
Publish your post and the trackback will be sent. Please note that your trackback might be sent but the receiving site may choose not to display it.
||This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2010)|
A trackback is one of three types of linkback methods for Web-site authors to request notification when somebody links to one of their documents. This enables authors to keep track of who is linking to their articles. Some weblog software, such as WordPress, Drupal, and Movable Type, supports automatic pingbacks where all the links in a published article can be pinged when the article is published. The term is used colloquially for any kind of linkback.
The TrackBack specification was created by Six Apart, which first implemented it in its Movable Type blogging software in August 2002. The TrackBack has since been implemented in most other blogging tools. Six Apart started a working group in February 2006 to improve the Trackback protocol with the goal to eventually have it approved as an Internet standard by the IETF. One notable blogging service that does not support trackback is Blogger. Instead, Blogger provides “backlinks”, which allow users to employ Google’s search infrastructure to show links between blog entries.
A trackback is an acknowledgment. This acknowledgment is sent via a network signal (ping) from the originating site to the receiving site. The receptor often publishes a link back to the originator indicating its worthiness. Trackback requires both sites to be trackback-enabled in order to establish this communication.
Trackbacks are used primarily to facilitate communication between blogs; if a blogger writes a new entry commenting on, or referring to, an entry found at another blog, and both blogging tools support the TrackBack protocol, then the commenting blogger can notify the other blog with a “TrackBack ping“; the receiving blog will typically display summaries of, and links to, all the commenting entries below the original entry. This allows for conversations spanning several blogs that readers can easily follow.
Blogging software that supports the TrackBack protocol displays a “TrackBack URL” with every entry. This URL is used by the commenting blogger, whose software will send XML-formatted information about the new entry to this URL. Some blogging tools are able to discover these TrackBack URLs automatically, others require the commenting blogger to enter them manually.
Selected software supporting trackbacks
- Kentico CMS
- Movable Type
- Telligent Community
Some individuals or companies have abused the TrackBack feature to insert spam links on some blogs. This is similar to comment spam but avoids some of the safeguards designed to stop the latter practice. As a result, TrackBack spam filters similar to those implemented against comment spam now exist in many weblog publishing systems. Many blogs have stopped using trackbacks because dealing with spam became too much of a burden.
- Linkback, the suite of protocols that allows websites to manually and automatically link to one another
- Pingback, a similar protocol less prone to spam
- Refback, another similar protocol
- Referrer, identifies the address of the webpage of the resource which links to it
- Search engine optimization
- Sping, short for “spam ping”
- ^ TrackBack Technical Specification
- ^ Blogger: backlinks feature (not quite trackback) – A Consuming Experience
|Look up trackback in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia