Sự khác nhau giữa Chromium và Chrome ?


Chromium là dự án mã nguồn mở và là nền tảng cho Google Chrome. Do hoàn toàn là mã nguồn mở nên Chromium có sẵn trên kho phần mềm Linux để dễ dàng cài đặt hơn.

1. Cài đặt Chromium hay Chrome

Trên hệ điều hành Linux, Chromium có thể được cài đặt trực tiếp từ kho phần mềm phân phối Linux. Chẳng hạn, trên Ubuntu Linux, Chromium có thể được cài đặt bằng cách mở Ubuntun Software Center, tìm kiếm Chromium, sau đó click vào biểu tượng Chromium và cài đặt.

Chromium sẽ được update (cập nhật) cùng bản update bảo mật trên kho phần mềm phân phối Linux.

Trên Windows và Mac, việc sử dụng Chromium sẽ khó khăn hơn nhiều. Bản Official Chromium cũng được tích hợp sẵn, nhưng tuy nhiên ở thời điểm này nó không tự động update (cập nhật).

Chromium

Quá trình update là một phần mã nguồn đóng của Google Chrome. Bạn có thể nhận bản Official Chromium từ bên thứ ba , nhưng nó cũng sẽ không được tự động cập nhật hoặc và quan trọng hơn là bạn phải tin tưởng các nhà phân phối của bên thứ ba. Bạn có thể biên soạn Chromium cho chính mình, nhưng liệu rằng bạn sẽ thực sự muốn làm điều đó mỗi khi có sẵn các bản cập nhật?

Trên Linux, bạn có thể tải và cài đặt Google Chrome bằng cách truy cập trang Google Chrome download, sau đó cài đặt gói dữ liệu. Nó sẽ cấu hình kho lưu trữ phần mềm Official Google để cập nhật Chrome xuất hiện trong gói cập nhật bản phân phối của Linux.

Nó bao gồm một số mã nguồn đóng, và đó chính là lí do tại sao mà nó không có sẵn trên kho phân phối phần mềm của bạn.

Trên hệ điều hành Windows và Mac, người dùng có thể cài đặt Chrome trực tiếp từ trang download của Google.

Chromium

2. Chrome và Chromium chưa làm được gì?

Chrome bao gồm một số mã nguồn đóng mà trên Chromium còn thiếu:

– Hỗ trợ AAC, H.264 và MP3: Chrome bao gồm một số codec cho phép các định dạng phương tiện truyền thông độc quyền – đặc biệt là các trang web sử dụng HTML5 video để stream video H.264. Cả hai trình duyệt đều ​​có những codec cơ bản, miễn phí: Opus, Theora, Vorbis, VP8, VP9, và WAV.

– Adobe Flash (PPAPI): Chrome bao gồm một plug-in Flash sandboxed API Pepper (PPAPI) mà Google tự động cập nhật cùng với Chrome. Đây là cách duy nhất để cài đặt phiên bản mới nhất của Flash trên Linux.

– Google Update: Windows và Mac có một chương trình tự động cập nhật (update) Chrome. Với người dùng Linux sử dụng các công cụ quản lý phần mềm tiêu chuẩn của họ.

– Bảo mật Sandbox (?): Google cũng lưu ý rằng một số các bản phân phối Linux có thể vô hiệu hóa bảo mật Sandbox của Chromium, do đó bạn phải điều hướng đến about: sandbox trên Chromium để đảm bảo Sandbox được kích hoạt và đang hoạt động theo mặc định. Đây là một trong những tính năng tốt nhất trên Chromium (và Chrome).

Mặc dù không phải là thương hiệu của Google, nhưng Chromium vẫn được xem là tâm điểm của Google. Chromium chứa một số tính năng đồng bộ hóa được tìm thấy trên Chrome, cho phép bạn đăng nhập bằng tài khoản Google và đồng bộ dữ liệu.

Chromium

3. Còn về Spyware?

Google Chrome được tích hợp thêm tính năng thông báo lỗi Crash, tuy nhiên tính năng này không được tích hợp trên Chromium. Nếu kích hoạt tính năng thông báo lỗi crash trên Chrome, các thông tin về lỗi crash sẽ được gửi đến Google.

Nếu sử dụng Chromium, thông báo lỗi crash sẽ không hiển thị. Ngoài ra Linux distributions cũng có thể chỉnh sửa mã Chromium trước khi gửi đến bạn.

Chromium cũng không sử dụng tính năng theo dõi hoặc tính năng “user metrics” được tìm thấy trên Chrome. Đây là tính năng tùy chọn gửi thông tin về cách mà bạn sử dụng các phần khác nhau trên trình duyệt của Google, cung cấp dữ liệu mà người dùng sử dụng dựa trên quyết định của họ.

Trong quá khứ, nhiều người dùng lo lắng rằng mỗi trình duyệt Chrome vận chuyển với một “client ID” duy nhất và lưu ý rằng trên Chromium không có quá trình này, tuy nhiên Google đã ngừng làm điều này kể từ năm 2010.

Tuy nhiên, Chromium bao gồm nhiều tính năng phụ thuộc vào các máy chủ của Google, và chúng đang được kích hoạt theo mặc định. Bạn sẽ nhìn thấy những tính năng được liệt kê trên trang Settings. Chúng bao gồm một dịch vụ web giúp sửa chữa các địa chỉ web gõ sai, một dịch vụ dự báo, tính năng chống phishing của Google, và một số tính năng khác.

trang Settings

4. Lựa chọn Chrome hay Chromium?

Chromium là một lựa chọn tốt bởi vì nó cho phép phân phối Linux chỉ yêu cầu phần mềm mã nguồn mở để đóng gói một trình duyệt web gần như giống với Chrome và đưa nó đến với người dùng của họ. Thậm chí Linux distributions có thể sử dụng Chromium là trình duyệt web mặc định của họ thay vì Firefox, nếu muốn.

Nếu bạn đang sử dụng phần mềm mã nguồn mở và cố gắng tránh bất kỳ các mã nguồn đóng thì Chromium là một lựa chọn tuyệt vời cho bạn.

Tuy nhiên, nếu bạn không phải là người dùng Linux đam mê về phần mềm mã nguồn mở, bạn vẫn có thể cài đặt Chromium. Khi cài đặt Chromium sẽ cung cấp cho bạn một Flash Player tốt hơn nếu bạn đang sử dụng Flash và mở khóa một lượng lớn nội dung đa phương tiện trực tuyến. Chẳng hạn, Google Chrome trên Linux có thể stream video Netflix. Điều này đòi hỏi hỗ trợ H.264 cho video HTML5.

Trên Windows và Mac, rõ ràng Chromium là sự lựa chọn quá “khó tính” để sử dụng. Lí do là bởi vì bạn không được nhận bản cập nhật chính thức. Do đó Chromium chỉ thực sự dành cho người dùng Linux mà thôi.

stream video Netflix

TechTalk via Quantrimang

Understanding BtrFS


While recently installing some memory and a new Patriot 120 GB SSD into an older laptop that I was going to use as a test server, or I should say a install an OS, perform penetration tests on it and possibly (99.9% chance that I would bork it) wipe it clean only to reinstall the OS on it again, it dawned on me, that it would be nice if I could revert it back to an earlier time (not the fresh install state) without having to use backup software. While DD is my go to product, it can be time consuming.  This particular laptop is a Lenovo Z585 that I was using for my Windows 7 & 10 projects and I wanted to install Windows Server 2016 and GNS3 so that I could learn active directory domain services on the Windows Server 2016 partition and with the Cent OS partition I could start learning the rpm package management system and the different commands that come with Red Hat, CentOS and Fedora versions of Linux.

I decided to install Windows Server 2016 on the first 60 GB partition and CentOS on the remaining 60 GB partition and I would have the original 500 GB hard drive as internal storage which would be split down the middle.  This dual boot setup would give me the opportunity to learn how to put two different OS’es and two different file systems on the same SSD and I was up for the challenge.  While installing Windows 206 I reached a point in the setup where I had to format the SSD and I was presented with a few choices for the file system on that was going to be on the Linux box, mainly ext4 and BtrFS.  This is were I ended the setup and called upon my trusty friend Google.  I needed to know more about BtrFS, as I knew a little bit about the ext4 journaling file system and since this would be a new SSD I had a few concerns about using discard, noatime and nodiratime.

BtrFS filesystem in Linux provides the following Features and Capabilities

Built-in copy on write
Powerful snapshot capabilities
Built-in volume management with subvolumes
Massive Scalability upto 16 Exabytes
Built-in data integrity (checksums)
SSD optimization
Compression capabilities
Cloud ready
RAID built in BtrFS
Manual defragmentation
Online filesystem management
Data and metadata integrity
In-place conversion from ext2/3/4 and ReiserFS
Quota groups
Online expansion and reduction of filesystem size
Object level RAID
Seeding devices
Support for multiple devices

To start out Wikipedia has some good information and links on BtrFS, however I was just looking for some information and not another college course.  I hope that this article helps someone out there fill in the gaps.  A BtrFS filesystem partition cannot be encrypted which means that PII that has to be encrypted will not work for you.  What will work is using BtrFS for the filesystem and using EXT4 on a storage partition.  Also BtrFS was removed from RHEL 8 in 2019 which was surprising because by some accounts it is going to be the next generation general purpose Linux file system.  I think the lack of FDE is hurting BtrFS.  One of the major advantages of BtrFS is it offers advanced reliability along with snapshots and a core feature called “copy-on-write.”  Btrfs was designed to overcome fault tolerance, management and data protection.

Copy-On-Write

The copy-on-write function is sort of like a file that was just written to a partition and a copy of that file is just a reference to the original file location, however when the copy (or the original) is changed then the two files separate from one another.  If you can picture an empty disk, then a file with the contents of 1,2,3,4,5,6 is written to that disk along with some metadata blocks that make up that filesystem.  Now imagine that the disk has one file with the contents 1,2,3,4,5,6.  In a regular filesystem if you change that file the original file is overwritten.  Remember that when you open a file, a copy is created on the hard drive and you are actually editing that copy and when you close that file the changes are written to the original file and the copy is deleted.  In copy-on-write, using our example from above if you open up the file and change the 5,6 in the file to 7,8, what happens is the 7,8 is written to a new part of the hard disk and this new file’s metadata is changed to reference this new data.  The original file with the 1,2,3,4,5,6 still contains 1,2,3,4,5,6 however the metadata will be changed to reflect that the spaces of 5,6 can be overwritten.  

By not updating the original location it eliminates the risk of a partial update or data corruption during a power failure, and the copy-on-write nature of Btrfs also facilitates file system features such as replication, migration, backup, and restoration of data.  Btrfs provides efficient storage for small files.  Because all Linux file systems address storage in block sizes of 4 KB this means that if we have a file that is smaller than 4KB then we have space on the hard disk that is wasted.  Btrfs utilizes these smaller files by directly storing them in the metadata, thereby providing a significant performance advantage over other file systems when creating and reading small files.

BtrFS Snapshots

Interesting enough, Btrfs lets you to make readable and writable snapshots.  These snapshots are copies of a sub-volume that were taken at some point in time.  When opened these snapshots appear as directories that you can access the same way you would access a normal Linux directory.  Writable snapshots will let you revert a filesystem to a position that includes a previous state.  This allows you the flexibility to administer a system patch and reboot into the snapshot if the system is not performing as expected.  By default all snapshots are writable, however you have the ability to create read-only snapshots.  Read only snapshots are useful for off site backups.  Btrfs is included in the mainline Linux kernel.

BEWARE: The installer for CentOS 6 does not allow the creation of a Btrfs filesystem, so it has to be done with ETX4 and then converted post-install.  As I mentioned earlier RHEL is not supporting Btrfs, so it would be a good guess that CentOS and Fedora may follow ship.  Time will tell.

1.) Btrfs utilities are installed using the btrfs-progs software package.  ON a RHEL system use this following command to display the files provided:                                     

# rpm –ql btrfs-progs2

2.) Use the mkfs.btrfs command to create a Btrfs file system. The syntax is:                 

#mkfs.btrfs /dev/sdb

3.) To create a Btrfs file system on two block devices (for example, /dev/sdb and /dev/sdc):                                                                                                                                                # mkfs.btrfs /dev/sdb /dev/sdc

The default configuration for a file system with multiple devices is:
-d raid0 – Stripe the file system data across all devices.
-m raid1 – Mirror the file system metadata across all devices.

4.) To create a Btrfs file system with multiple devices (/dev/sdb and /dev/sdc) and stripe both the data and the metadata:                                                                                                         # mkfs.btrfs –m raid0 /dev/sdb /dev/sdc

5.) To create a Btrfs file system with multiple devices (/dev/sdb and /dev/sdc) and mirror both the data and the metadata:                                                                                                         # mkfs.btrfs –d raid1 /dev/sdb /dev/sdc

6.)When you specify a single device, metadata is duplicated on that device unless you specify only a single copy. To create a Btrfs file system on a single block device (for example, /dev/sdb) and to specify not to duplicate the metadata:                                             # mkfs.btrfs –m single /dev/sdb

7.) Use the mount command or make an entry in /etc/fstab as you would when mounting any other type of Linux file system.  You can reference either device when your file system contains multiple devices. You can also reference the file system label or the UUID. Example:                                                                                                                                                   # mount /dev/sdb /btrfs

Make sure you have the entry in /etc/fstab (Example below uses UUID of the Btrfs device):                                                                                                                                                     # vi /etc/fstab UUID=e7e5c123-fg76-5gxx-a87d-gt5fed9r768e /data btrfs defaults 0 0

If you would like more information on the various file formats including NTFS and EXT4 you can go to Wikipedia. 

Windows does not natively work with Btrfs, however there is an open source Btrfs driver for Windows that allows Windows  to utilize Btrfs as a storage device. This project is still under development and is having great success.

Refer WordPress.com

Apple cracks down on COVID-19 apps, bans games based on virus


Apple cracks down on COVID-19 apps, bans games based on virus

https://www.slashgear.com/apple-cracks-down-on-covid-19-apps-bans-games-based-on-virus-15613148/
— Read on www.slashgear.com/apple-cracks-down-on-covid-19-apps-bans-games-based-on-virus-15613148/

27 Best Chrome OS Tips and Tricks


27 Best Chrome OS Tips and Tricks You Should Use

Chrome OS was released in 2011 and since then it has seen a steady improvement across the spectrum. While some are still critical of its viability in today’s market, Chrome OS is doing pretty good in the US and mainly in the education sector. So if you already own one or looking to buy a Chromebook, we have got some great features and recommendations for you. In this article, we bring you the 27 best Chrome OS tips and tricks which are going to help you master this new operating system with ease. We have mentioned unique tricks for both beginners and advanced users so the article has something for every set of users. Now having said all of that, let’s go through the list without further ado.

Best Chrome OS Tips and Tricks in 2020

As mentioned above, the article is categorized into two sections: one for Beginners and another for Advanced users. Based on your level of expertise, you can go through the article and learn more about Chromebooks. Also, let me add that I have included all the new features and hidden settings that are available as on Chrome OS 79 update. So without further delay, let’s start with beginner’s tips and tricks of Chrome OS.

  • Chrome OS Tips and Tricks for Beginners

1. Set a Pin for a Seamless Login

As we already know, Chromebook is deeply tied to our Google account. So, before accessing anything, we have to enter our Google account password every single time. I find it very tiring and frankly a chore. Coming from a Windows PC, I want to set a pin for hassle-free login and thankfully, now Google allows you to set a PIN. To create a PIN, open Settings (Cogwheel icon) from Quick Settings menu and open “Screen lock and sign-in” under the “You and Google” section. Here, enter your Google account password for the last time and set a 6-digit Pin. Voila, you are done.

1. Set a Pin for a Seamless Login Best Chrome OS Tips and Tricks

2. Enable Offline Mode

You can enable Offline Mode on Chromebook for Google Docs and Drive. For Google Docs, install this extension first and turn on the checkbox for “Offline” Mode from here. You can also make a particular document offline by going to the Files menu and checking the option for “Make available Offline”. However, make sure to modify all these settings while you are connected to the internet.

2. Enable Offline Mode

3. Master Search on Chromebook

The best part about Chromebook is that Google Search is integrated across the system and the web. So, just press the dedicated search button on your keyboard and start typing and hit enter. No need to open Chrome then open a new Chrome tab and look for things. No matter where you are– under the Settings page or in Chrome itself– the search button always opens the result in a new tab instantly. I would say it’s better than opening a tab through Ctrl + T shortcut. Other than that, you can also search for Chrome apps and settings through the search button.

3. Master Search on Chromebook Best Chrome OS Tips and Tricks

4. Summon Google Assistant

You can also get your things done through Google Assistant, similar to what you can do on your smartphone. It works quite well and does not have any limitation in comparison to the Assistant on our Android smartphones. Just press “Search” and “A” keys simultaneously on your keyboard and Google Assistant will pop-up, ready to listen to your command. You can also trigger Google Assistant through voice. Open Settings and click on “Search and Assistants” in the left-pane menu. Here, click on “Google Assistant” and enable the toggle for “Ok Google”.

4. Summon Google Assistant

5. Enable Caps Lock

I know the frustration when you find out Chromebooks don’t have a dedicated Caps Lock button. But worry not, you can enable it easily by pressing the “Search” and “Alt” keys at once. A notification will pop-up that Caps Lock has been turned on it will remain there until you turn off Caps Lock using the same shortcut. I know it’s not straightforward, but at least there is a way out.

5. Enable Caps Lock

6. Navigate Chrome OS Through Gestures

Unlike Windows and macOS, you don’t have a range of gestures on Chrome OS. However, you can access the overview window by a simple 3-finger slide up/down gesture. Also, if you are in the Chrome browser, you can use the 3-finger slide in the left and right direction to move between the tabs effortlessly. This is one of the best gestures I have found on Chrome OS and I use it regularly while multi-tasking. Apart from that, you can close a tab by simply tapping 3 fingers at once on a Chrome tab.

6. Navigate Chrome OS Through Gestures Best Chrome OS Tips and Tricks

7. Preview Files Quickly

Sure, the file manager is not that great on Chrome OS, but I love the fact that it has a quick preview shortcut for any file, similar to what we have on macOS. Just select a file and press the “Space” key. Instantly, the file will be previewed in a large window with all the details (file size, format, etc.) in the right pane. Besides that, you can also switch between files while being in the preview mode and exit it by pressing the “Esc” key. It’s these small things that make Chrome OS a delight to use.

7. Preview Files Quickly

8. Touchpad Scrolling Behavior

Many people who are coming from Windows PC find the default scrolling behavior on Chrome OS the opposite and frankly, it was quite jarring for me too. However, there is a way to change the scrolling behavior from the Settings page. Click on “Device” from the left menu and open “Mouse and touchpad”. Here, scroll down and change the scrolling to “Australian” which is also called natural scrolling on macOS.

8. Touchpad Scrolling Behavior

9. Virtual Desktop

Users have been asking for a virtual desktop environment on Chrome OS for quite some time. Finally, it’s available in the stable channel starting with Chrome OS 78. For multi-taskers, it’s a huge help as it lets them focus on important things first. So here is how you can access it. Just do a 3-finger slide up gesture and you will find the “New Desk” option on the top-right corner. Alternatively, you can use these shortcuts as well: Shift + Search + = to create new virtual desktop and Shift + Search + – to delete one. You can switch between them using Search + ] and Search + [ shortcuts.

9. Virtual Desktop Best Chrome OS Tips and Tricks

10. Helpful Chrome OS Shortcuts

While there are endless keyboard shortcuts on Chrome OS, here are some crucial ones that will help you navigate through Chrome OS like a pro.

  • Search for anything: Press the Search button
  • Trigger Google Assistant: Search + A
  • Lock your Chromebook: Search + L
  • Take a Screenshot: Ctrl + Overview button (you will find it just above the 6 key)
  • Delete: Alt + Backspace
  • Snap Windows to left/right: Alt + ] and Alt + [
  • Keyboard Cheatsheet: Ctrl + Alt + ?

11. Add a Secondary Google Account Inside the Existing Profile

On Windows, you can add multiple Google accounts under a single Chrome profile, but on Chrome OS, Google creates a new profile for every new Google account. While I get the idea behind it, sometimes I just want to check my work email or access Drive files from another Google account and that’s when it becomes frustrating. Nevertheless, now Google has provided an option to add a secondary account in the existing profile itself. Here is how you can access it. Open Settings and click on your name under the “You and Google” section. Here, click on “Add Account” and enter the new Google account credentials. Enjoy!

11. Add a Secondary Google Account Inside the Existing One

12. Enable Android Apps

As most of you know, Google has brought Android app support on Chromebooks and it’s a great step towards creating a coherent Google ecosystem. You can install and use millions of Android apps directly from the Google Play Store. In case, it’s not turned on by default, you can enable Play Store from the Settings page. Click on “Apps” on the left pane and open “Google Play Store”. Here, allow various permissions and set up Play Store. That’s it. Enjoy Android apps on your Chromebook.

12. Enable Android Apps Best Chrome OS Tips and Tricks

If Play Store settings are not showing on your Chromebook then it might be in beta and you may have to change your update channel to access Play Store. I have mentioned how to change the update channel in the next section so go through those steps. Also, you can find the details about Play Store support for your Chromebook from here.

13. Enable Floating Keyboard

You can enable the floating keyboard if you are using your Chromebook in a tablet or tent mode. It will help you type using the touch-screen display. So to enable it, open Settings and click on “Advanced” from the left-pane menu. Here, scroll down and open “Accessibility”. Now, just enable the toggle for the “on-screen” keyboard. Now, a keyboard icon will show up on your shelf. Click on it and voila, the keyboard is on your screen.

13. Enable Floating Keyboard

14. Share your Chromebook

As we have mentioned before the Chromebook is, in some sense, a very private computer. It’s directly linked to your Google account so anyone gaining access to your Chromebook means they can view your photos, check your emails, read your notes among many other things. In a way, it’s not easy to share your Chromebook as it’s with Windows-based computers. So, what if someone asks to use your Chromebook for a while, say your sister or someone from your family? Well, you can create a separate account or better, take advantage of the “Guest Mode”. It lets you access most of the Chrome OS features without adding any account. Open the Quick Settings menu from the bottom-right corner and sign out of your current profile. Now, click on “Guest Mode” at the bottom and you will be in a temporary profile.

14. Share your Chromebook Best Chrome OS Tips and Tricks

15. Reset Your Chromebook

If you are having any problem with your Chrome OS, you can easily factory-reset (called Powerwash on Chrome OS) your machine, similar to Android devices. The great part about Chrome OS is that all your files are synced to Google Drive so you don’t have to worry about data loss. Just open the Settings and click on “Advanced” from the left-pane menu and then move to “Reset Settings”. Here, click on the “Reset” button and the computer will restart to complete the process. After that, sign in with your Google account and everything will fall into its place just like before.

15. Reset Your Chromebook

16. Other Chrome OS Tips

If you were reading something on your Android and suddenly moved to a Chromebook then you can continue reading it on your computer easily. Just press the “Search” button once and you will find the link in the first entry. Click on it and there you have it.

16. Other Chrome OS Tips

Other than that, if you want to quickly call a phone number from a webpage, you can right-click on it and send it to your Android device. Your smartphone will prompt you with a one-tap call notification.

  • Chrome OS Tips and Tricks for Advanced Users

17. Add your Android Device

Google has brought support for Android devices on Chromebook which can help you get many things done seamlessly. In case, there is no WiFi available, Google allows the Chromebook to tether your Android device automatically for always-on data connectivity. Apart from that, you can also seamlessly sign into your Chromebook by unlocking your Android device. Basically, both the devices are always in communication so that you get the best of the Google experience. So if you want to add your Android device, open Settings and click on “Connected Devices” in the left pane. Here, set up your Android device and you are good to go.

17. Add your Android Device Best Chrome OS Tips and Tricks

18. Change Update Channel

If you are someone who wants to taste the new and exciting features of Chrome OS then you will have to jump the ship from Stable to another channel. There are four update channels: Stable, Developer, Beta, and Canary. I would advise you to stick with Developer or Beta channel as these are relatively bug-free than Canary and also allow you to enjoy the upcoming features. So to change the update channel, open Settings -> Click on “About Chrome OS” in the left pane -> Change Channel. Here, choose the update channel of your choice then go back and check for updates. After downloading the update and installation, just restart your Chromebook and you will be in.

18. Change Update Channel

19. Create Standalone Apps from Websites

If you want some websites to behave like an app with a separate window and launcher menu then you can create such standalone apps on a Chromebook. However, keep in mind, it’s only possible on those websites which adhere to PWA (Progressive Web App) standard. For example, you can easily create apps from websites of Spotify, Twitter and our own portal, beebom.com. To do so, open the website of your choice and click on the 3-dot menu on the top-right corner. Here, open  More Tools -> Create Shortcut -> Check the box for “Open as Window” and click on the “Create” button. Now, you will find the website as a separate app available in your launcher and you can even pin it to your shelf.

19. Create Standalone Apps from Websites

20. Run Any Android App

While the Play Store support is great on Chromebook, many users find it inadequate as some of their favorite apps are officially not available on the Play Store. In that case, you will have to download the APK and run it through the ARC Welder. I have explained the steps in great detail in a separate article on how to install the Kodi app on Chromebook. You can follow a similar step for installing other apps as well.

20. Run Any Android App Best Chrome OS Tips and Tricks

21. Force Android App to be Resizable

If some Android app is not allowing you to resize its window size or does not open in the landscape orientation then you can force enable the flag from the Android Settings page. Open Chrome OS Settings and click on Apps in the left-pane -> Google Play Store -> Manage Android Preferences. Now we are on the Android Settings page so navigate to System -> About Device -> click on the “Build Number” continuously for 7-8 times. Now, go back and open the “Developer Options“. Scroll down to the bottom and enable the toggle for “Force activities to be resizable”. Finally, restart your Chromebook and the Android apps should be resizable now.

21. Force Android App to be Resizable

22. Use Third-Party DNS

Similar to Android smartphones, we can change the DNS configuration on Chromebooks too. You can use third-party DNS like Cloudfare or OpenDNS to improve your internet speed. So to modify the DNS, open Settings and click on the WiFi network that you are connected to. Here, scroll down and click on “Network” to expand the menu. Finally, select “Custom name servers” and enter your choice of DNS address.

22. Use Third-Party DNS

23. Find System Information

Chrome OS is very minimal and consumer-facing so it does not provide details like system memory, CPU usage, background processes and similar metrics for the end-user. However, if you want to access those metrics, there are some hidden commands that let you do it. Just enter chrome://system/ in the address bar and hit enter. You will get all the information from hardware to software on this page. Other than that, you can also install an extension called Cog (Free) which allows you to monitor many metrics like CPU usage, temperature, etc. in a slick and graphical interface.

23. Find System Information

24. Share Windows Folders to Chromebook (Network File Share)

One of the best features of Windows OS is that you can seamlessly access files and folders from other Windows computers using a common wireless network. So to make the desktop experience similar on Chrome OS, Google has also brought Network File Share and it’s embedded in the native File Manager. Basically, you can remotely access all your Windows files and folders on your Chromebook without any hassle. I have written a detailed guide on how to use this feature so go through the steps and you will be all set.

24. Share Windows Folders to Chromebook (Network File Share) Best Chrome OS Tips and Tricks

25. Enable Linux on Chromebook

Recently, Google added support for Linux on Chrome OS and it’s simply magical to use both the operating systems side by side. While the project is still in beta, the Terminal works quite well with support for all the Linux commands. You can even install Linux apps on Chrome OS, but let me clarify, at this point, the performance is not that great. Anyway, if you want to enable it, open Settings and simply navigate to “Linux (Beta)”. Here, turn on the toggle for Linux and go through the on-screen instructions.

25. Enable Linux on Chromebook

However, do note that Chrome OS and Linux, both have different storage systems so you will have to share your local folders to Linux. You can do so from the native File Manager itself. Just right-click on the folder that you want to share and choose “Select with Linux”. That’s it.

26. Enable ADB on Chrome OS (Android Debugging Bridge)

Earlier, there was an unofficial way to enable ADB on Chrome OS through Linux and platform tools. However, things have changed now since Google has brought native ADB support on Chrome OS. You can find the dedicated page from Settings -> Linux -> Develop Android apps and enable the toggle for “Enable ADB Debugging”. You are good to go.

26. Enable ADB on Chrome OS (Android Debugging Bridge)

27. Learning Chrome Shell (Crosh)

Similar to Command Prompt on Windows, Bash in Linux and Terminal on macOS, Chrome OS has its command line called Chrome Shell (Crosh). It allows you to modify many system settings that are otherwise not available in Settings or Flags page. So, if you want to dive deep into Chrome OS, you must learn what Crosh offers and how it can help you do many things. We have already written a tutorial on the best Crosh commands so go through that as a primer.

27. Learning Chrome Shell (Crosh) Best Chrome OS Tips and Tricks

Reference: beebom.com

11 điều cần biết khi thuê dịch vụ kiểm thử Pentest hoặc tuyển dụng Pen-tester


Checklist 11 điều cần biết khi thuê dịch vụ kiểm thử Pentest hoặc tuyển dụng Pen-tester

Pentest (Penetration Testing – Kiểm thử xâm nhập) là một phần quan trọng trong việc củng cố và duy trì an ninh mạng của mỗi doanh nghiệp. Bằng cách “hack vào một hệ thống”, các chuyên gia kiểm thử (pentester) có thể vá những lỗ hổng bảo mật và đảm bảo toàn bộ hệ thống bao gồm mạng, ứng dụng, dữ liệu không bị tin tặc truy cập trái phép. Nhưng việc tìm kiếm một dịch vụ Pentest tốt và ứng viên chất lượng lại không hề đơn giản đối với doanh nghiệp. Dưới đây là 11 điều bạn cần biết để thuê được những chuyên gia kiểm thử tốt nhất.

1. Trình độ chuyên môn của Pentester

Trình độ chuyên môn là vấn đề cần quan tâm hàng đầu khi thuê một dịch vụ Pentest hay một nhóm Pentester. Để đánh giá trình độ chuyên môn của Chuyên gia kiểm thử, thông thường sẽ dựa vào các chứng chỉ mà họ có. Ví dụ: GPEN, GCIH, CEH, GXPN…

Việc sở hữu những chứng chỉ chuyên môn không đảm bảo một chuyên gia kiểm thử là xuất sắc nhất, nhưng nó cho thấy họ đạt được tiêu chuẩn trình độ nhất định và nghiêm túc với sự nghiệp của mình. Vì thế, những Pen-tester có chứng chỉ chuyên môn sẽ là một lựa chọn an toàn cho tổ chức của bạn.

dịch vụ Pentest tốt

Để kiểm tra trình độ chuyên môn của đội ngũ Kiểm thử, bạn có thể dựa vào các chứng chỉ Pentest/ Ethical Hacking mà họ có được. Bên cạnh đó, một bài kiểm tra chuyên môn cũng có giá trị sàng lọc, cho phép bạn tìm thấy những Chuyên gia bảo mật có kiến thức tốt hơn.

2. Kinh nghiệm thực tế

Không ai muốn thuê những pentester có thành tích, chứng chỉ “xuất sắc” nhưng không hoàn thành tốt công việc. Đó là lí do bạn cần quan tâm tới kinh nghiệm thực tế của chuyên gia kiểm thử.

Những pentesters có kinh nghiệm thực tế về mô hình phát triển doanh nghiệp, giao thức mạng, MiTM, ARP, quản trị hệ thống đa nền tảng, lưu trữ mật khẩu (LM, NTLM, Shadow, v.v.), hệ thống cơ sở dữ liệu, scripting (ruby, python, Perl, v.v.) sẽ là những ứng viên sáng giá.

Ian Amit, Giám đốc Dịch vụ của IOActive nhấn mạnh: Để xác định trình độ của một Pen-tester, một bài test kỹ năng là không đủ. Các chuyên gia kiểm thử cần nêu được phương pháp và quy trình pentest rõ ràng, đồng thời tái hiện lại được lỗ hổng. Các báo cáo cần chỉ ra các vấn đề một cách hệ thống và đưa ra phương pháp giải quyết triệt để hoặc giảm thiểu rủi ro.

3. Am hiểu về công cụ

Bên cạnh kiến thức – kinh nghiệm, thì việc am hiểu các bộ công cụ cũng là một điểm cộng cho một số chuyên gia kiểm thử.

Những bộ công cụ như Burp Suite, Metasploit, Nessus Scanner hay Wireshark sẽ giúp ích rất nhiều trong quá trình tìm kiếm những lỗ hổng tồn tại trong hệ thống, sản phẩm của doanh nghiệp.

Một chuyên gia kiểm thử có khả năng “làm chủ công cụ” sẽ có thể tận dụng sức mạnh của các công cụ quét lỗ hổng đó để tăng tốc độ kiểm tra. Từ đó cắt giảm “sức người” vào những công việc mà phần mềm có thể xử lý được. Điều này cũng thể hiện sự thông minh trong cách làm việc của Pentester.

4. Kinh nghiệm quản trị hệ thống và phát triển ứng dụng

Các chuyên gia cho rằng, một Pentester với kinh nghiệm quản trị mạng sẽ vượt trội hơn một “hacker” chỉ học cách xâm nhập vào hệ thống. Họ hiểu sâu sắc về cách vận hành của hệ thống và mạng nội bộ, họ nắm bắt môi trường tốt hơn, từ đó đưa ra những quyết định tốt hơn.

Tương tự đối với một pen-tester ứng dụng, kiến ​​thức sâu sắc từ phát triển ứng dụng sẽ giúp họ có lợi thế trong việc phát hiện ra các điểm yếu của ứng dụng.

Dĩ nhiên, vẫn có những chuyên gia kiểm thử tài năng mà chưa có nhiều kinh nghiệm quản trị mạng hay phát triển ứng dụng. Nhưng con số này là rất nhỏ, hầu hết các chuyên gia xuất sắc đều phải có hiểu biết nhất định về hệ thống, hạ tầng IT, hay cấu trúc ứng dụng.

5. Tham khảo cộng đồng chuyên gia

Nếu bạn muốn tìm kiếm ứng viên kiểm thử chất lượng, đừng quên tham gia vào các cộng đồng quy tụ các chuyên gia bảo mật trên khắp các nền tảng: online, offline, Facebook, Github, Hội nghị – hội thảo về Hacker, các chương trình bảo mật thông tin trong khu vực…

Việc tích cực tham gia vào các cộng đồng này giúp bạn xây dựng mối quan hệ với các ứng viên tiềm năng và thương hiệu của bạn trở nên quen thuộc hơn với các chuyên gia kiểm thử. Điều đó giúp tăng khả năng tuyển dụng được ứng viên phù hợp.

Bên cạnh đó, tham gia vào các cộng đồng chuyên gia cũng giúp bạn hiểu hơn về suy nghĩ – góc nhìn của pentester (insight) về công việc kiểm thử. Điều này giúp cho quá trình hợp tác với Pentester diễn ra thuận lợi và đạt được nhiều kết quả khả quan hơn.

Một số cộng đồng, diễn đàn quy tụ nhiều pentesters & hackers mũ trắng:

  • Các cộng đồng Online: whitehat.vn, Trà Đá Hacking, Capture The Flag và Bug Bounty, Bug Bounty Hunters, Bug Bounty Forum…
  • Các hội nghị bảo mật nổi tiếng: DEFCON, XCON- Xfocus, Black Hat Conferrence, AppSec Europe, Bsides Series, SHMOOCON,…
Chuyên gia CyStack phát biểu tại hội nghị XCON-Xfocus 2019.

6. Uy tín của chuyên gia kiểm thử

Uy tín của chuyên gia kiểm thử rất quan trọng. Khi hợp tác với một chuyên gia kiểm thử, bạn sẽ cung cấp cho họ thông tin cần thiết để tìm ra những điểm yếu nhất trong hệ thống. Sẽ rất nguy hiểm nếu những điểm yếu đó không được báo cáo đầy đủ hoặc được sử dụng cho mục đích khác.

Để đánh giá uy tín của các cá nhân và các nhóm kiểm thử một cách tốt nhất, bạn nên tham khảo ý kiến tại các cộng đồng bảo mật. Theo Giám đốc cấp cao của Dell SecureWorks, bạn có thể tự đánh giá tương đối uy tín của một chuyên gia bằng cách trả lời các câu hỏi:

  • Họ có nổi bật trong cộng đồng bảo mật thông tin (InfoSec) không?
  • Họ đã phát biểu tại các hội nghị danh tiếng như DerbyCon, DEFCON, ShmooCon, hoặc các hội nghị tương tự? Hay các Cuộc thi Capture The Flag?
  • Họ có đóng góp cho các dựu án nguồn mở, viết blog hoặc xuất bản có trách nhiệm các lỗ hổng không?
  • Họ có thành tích cao trên các bảng xếp hạng Bug Bounty như HackerOne, BugCrowd, WhiteHub,… không?

Nếu câu trả lời hoàn toàn là không thì có lẽ bạn nên xem xét lại về mức độ uy tín của chuyên gia. Dưới đây là một số Hall of Fame của các công ty nổi tiếng, được coi như bảng vàng danh giá mà hacker nào cũng muốn được góp mặt:

Bên cạnh đó, nếu chuyên gia được đứng trên Bảng xếp hạng (Leaderboards) của các nền tảng Bug Bounty nổi tiếng, thì đó cũng là một điểm cộng lớn đối với uy tín của họ:

7. Hãy thuê một hacker say mê công việc

Thuê một nhà tư vấn không đam mê lĩnh vực chuyên môn của họ, bất kể ở lĩnh vực nào, đều là một ý tồi. Bởi vậy, Giám đốc Red Team của Dell chia sẻ kinh nghiệm khi thuê các pentesters: “Tôi xem CV ứng viên từ dưới lên, bởi vì nó cho tôi biết họ chú tâm vào vấn đề gì hơn là những việc họ được phân công làm. Nếu tôi thấy rằng kiểm tra thâm nhập là một sở thích của họ, nó sẽ ảnh hưởng tích cực đến quá trình đánh giá ứng viên.”

Tuy nhiên, cũng cần tránh những người có “cái tôi” lớn trong lĩnh vực bảo mật. Trong một vài trường hợp, họ có thể sẽ thích khoe khoang hơn bảo vệ an toàn cho hệ thống của bạn. Đó là lí do một pentester tận tâm và có phương pháp sẽ hiệu quả hơn một hacker thích khoe khoang.

8. Tính sáng tạo trong kiểm thử

Tính sáng tạo là một trong những tiêu chí quan trọng giúp Pentester hay hacker mũ trắng hoàn thành xuất sắc công việc của mình.

Ronnie Flathers, phó chuyên gia tư vấn bảo mật tại Neohapsis, cho biết: “Ngay cả cùng một lỗ hổng cũng có thể khác nhau ở hai môi trường khác nhau và cách bạn tấn công sẽ hiếm khi giống nhau.”

Ông cũng chia sẻ, các pentesters đang dần trở nên phụ thuộc vào công cụ quét lỗ hổng tự động. Mặc dù khi bắt đầu sẽ rất thuận lợi nhưng sau đó, nếu pentesters thiếu tính sáng tạo thì sẽ gặp khó khăn rất lớn khi công cụ bị lỗi, khi phần mềm không tương thích với tác vụ đang xử lý hoặc khi phần mềm không đảm bảo tính năng bảo mật.

9. Khả năng giao tiếp

Một trong những yếu tố quan trọng khác khi thuê dịch vụ Pentest là khả năng giao tiếp của chuyên gia kiểm thử. Ronnie Flathers, phó chuyên gia tư vấn bảo mật tại Neohapsis cho rằng “Giao tiếp là kỹ năng cần thiết nhất của một pentester, điều đó giúp họ dễ dàng chuyển đổi từ các cuộc thảo luận kỹ thuật chuyên môn sang các khái niệm đơn giản hơn tùy thuộc vào đối tượng.”

Theo Sameer Dixit: “Pentesters nên đưa ra các báo cáo chất lượng và giải thích chi tiết những phát hiện của họ ở cấp độ kỹ thuật và phi kỹ thuật.”

Robitaille (Dell) đã nêu ra một thực tế rằng giá trị của một pentester xoay quanh việc hiểu kết quả và làm cho những kết quả đó trở nên hữu ích. “Một pentester với kỹ năng chuyên môn và khả năng truyền đạt tốt khiến cho quản lý hiểu được thì hữu ích hơn nhiều so với pentester giỏi nhất thế giới nhưng khả năng truyền đạt kém, gây khó khăn cho người ra quyết định.”

Một chuyên gia kiểm thử có thể tìm thấy một lỗ hổng nghiêm trọng, nhưng nếu người đó không thể giải thích rõ và nêu ra rủi ro, khách hàng sẽ không hiểu về giá trị hoặc tầm quan trọng của nó.

10. Không ngại thảo luận với Pentesters

Một trong những sai lầm của doanh nghiệp khi thuê dịch vụ Pentest là không trao đổi thẳng thắn về những khó khăn mà tổ chức đang gặp phải trong việc bảo mật. Một khi bạn đã quyết định thuê chuyên gia kiểm thử, tức là bạn mặc định tin tưởng và giao trọng trách bảo mật hệ thống cho họ. Bên cạnh việc chọn chuyên gia uy tín và có hợp đồng rõ ràng, thì bạn nên trao đổi mọi khó khăn về bảo mật mà tổ chức gặp phải, cũng như các công cụ có sẵn để giúp họ dễ dàng hơn trong công việc của mình.

Những điều quan trọng như quét IP, bản quyền phần mềm, sửa chữa phần cứng và kiểm tra các kết nối không dây… cần được thông báo cụ thể cho Pentester. Theo Vincent:”Nếu bạn không cung cấp đủ thiết bị và công cụ, họ sẽ rất khó chịu khi phải mất thời gian và tiền bạc để mua các công cụ mà lẽ ra có sẵn”.

Hầu hết các pentesters mà chúng tôi đã nói chuyện đều cảm thấy một rào cản lớn khi cố gắng hợp tác chặt chẽ để giải quyết các vấn đề an ninh do gặp phải sự kháng cự từ chính các công ty mà họ đang hợp tác.

11. Pentest không đồng nghĩa với “an toàn tuyệt đối”

Một trong những lầm tưởng của doanh nghiệp là cho rằng việc bảo mật chỉ phụ thuộc vào kiểm tra xâm nhập.

Các chuyên gia cho rằng các doanh nghiệp cần phân lớp an ninh trong tổ chức của họ để đạt được hiệu quả bảo mật cao nhất. Luôn kết hợp kiểm tra dữ liệu, đánh giá mã và kiểm thử xâm nhập sẽ giúp tăng khả năng bảo mật hệ thống cũng như tăng độ chính xác của mức độ chấp nhận rủi ro. So sánh kết quả từ các đợt kiểm tra với nhật ký từ mạng riêng của bạn để xem bạn có thường xuyên bị tấn công hay không và hiểu được các thành phần tấn công. Đừng chỉ phụ thuộc vào pentest.

Tổng kết

Việc tìm được một dịch vụ Pentest hay những Pentester phù hợp với tổ chức của bạn không hề đơn giản. Quá trình này có thể mất nhiều thời gian và công sức, cũng như tiền bạc. Đổi lại, khi có một đội ngũ kiểm thử chất lượng, bảo mật của tổ chức sẽ được nâng lên một tầm cao mới, phòng tránh tối đa các rủi ro bị tin tặc tấn công và khai thác lỗ hổng gây thiệt hại nghiêm trọng. Cuối cùng, luôn ghi nhớ bạn cần các pentester có trách nhiệm với mục tiêu cuối cùng là “Bảo vệ doanh nghiệp” chứ không chỉ hoàn thành nhiệm vụ được giao. 

Theo cystack.net

Làm thế nào trở thành Hacker ?


How To Become A Hacker

Eric Steven Raymond

Thyrsus Enterprises


    <esr@thyrsus.com>
    

Copyright © 2001 Eric S. Raymond

Revision History
Revision 1.5203 Jasnuary 2020esr
Go makes a place as a plausible learning language, displacing Java.
Revision 1.5106 October 2017esr
Link to “Things Every Hacker Once Knew.” Mention USB-stick distros. Many updated translation links.
Revision 1.5019 July 2015esr
Added link to “Let’s Go Larval”.
Revision 1.4921 November 2014esr
Added link to “How To Learn Hacking”.
Revision 1.4819 June 2014esr
freshmeat/freecode is dead, alas.
Revision 1.4720 May 2014esr
Fix up various stale links. Join a hackerspace!
Revision 1.4625 Sep 2013esr
Add micropatronage explanation and gittip link. Why you should not ask me for advice on how to get started.
Revision 1.4512 May 2013esr
Open Solaris isn’t, and Unity screwed the pooch.
Revision 1.4420 May 2012esr
Updated the critique of Java.
Revision 1.4307 Feb 2011esr
Python passed Perl in popularity in 2010.
Revision 1.4222 Oct 2010esr
Added “Historical note”.
Revision 1.403 Nov 2008esr
Link fixes.
Revision 1.3914 Aug 2008esr
Link fixes.
Revision 1.388 Jan 2008esr
Deprecate Java as a language to learn early.
Revision 1.374 Oct 2007esr
Recommend Ubuntu as a Unix distro for newbies.

Table of Contents

Why This Document?

What Is a Hacker?

The Hacker Attitude

1. The world is full of fascinating problems waiting to be solved.

2. No problem should ever have to be solved twice.

3. Boredom and drudgery are evil.

4. Freedom is good.

5. Attitude is no substitute for competence.

Basic Hacking Skills

1. Learn how to program.

2. Get one of the open-source Unixes and learn to use and run it.

3. Learn how to use the World Wide Web and write HTML.

4. If you don’t have functional English, learn it.

Status in the Hacker Culture

1. Write open-source software

2. Help test and debug open-source software

3. Publish useful information

4. Help keep the infrastructure working

5. Serve the hacker culture itself

The Hacker/Nerd Connection

Points For Style

Historical Note: Hacking, Open Source, and Free SoftwareOther Resources

Frequently Asked Questions

Why This Document?

As editor of the Jargon File and author of a few other well-known documents of similar nature, I often get email requests from enthusiastic network newbies asking (in effect) “how can I learn to be a wizardly hacker?”. Back in 1996 I noticed that there didn’t seem to be any other FAQs or web documents that addressed this vital question, so I started this one. A lot of hackers now consider it definitive, and I suppose that means it is. Still, I don’t claim to be the exclusive authority on this topic; if you don’t like what you read here, write your own.

If you are reading a snapshot of this document offline, the current version lives at http://catb.org/~esr/faqs/hacker-howto.html.

Note: there is a list of Frequently Asked Questions at the end of this document. Please read these—twice—before mailing me any questions about this document.

Numerous translations of this document are available: Arabic Belorussian Bulgarian Chinese, Czech. Danish Dutch Estonian French German, Greek Hungarian, Italian Hebrew, Japanese Lithuanian Norwegian, Persian Polish Portuguese (Brazilian), Romanian Spanish, Turkish, and Swedish. Note that since this document changes occasionally, they may be out of date to varying degrees.

The five-dots-in-nine-squares diagram that decorates this document is called a glider. It is a simple pattern with some surprising properties in a mathematical simulation called Life that has fascinated hackers for many years. I think it makes a good visual emblem for what hackers are like — abstract, at first a bit mysterious-seeming, but a gateway to a whole world with an intricate logic of its own. Read more about the glider emblem here.

If you find this document valuable, please support me on Patreon or SubscribeStar. And consider also supporting other hackers who have produced code that you use and value via Loadsharers. Lots of small but continuing donations add up quickly, and can free the people who have given you gifts of their labor to create more value.

What Is a Hacker?

The Jargon File contains a bunch of definitions of the term ‘hacker’, most having to do with technical adeptness and a delight in solving problems and overcoming limits. If you want to know how to become a hacker, though, only two are really relevant.

There is a community, a shared culture, of expert programmers and networking wizards that traces its history back through decades to the first time-sharing minicomputers and the earliest ARPAnet experiments. The members of this culture originated the term ‘hacker’. Hackers built the Internet. Hackers made the Unix operating system what it is today. Hackers make the World Wide Web work. If you are part of this culture, if you have contributed to it and other people in it know who you are and call you a hacker, you’re a hacker.

The hacker mind-set is not confined to this software-hacker culture. There are people who apply the hacker attitude to other things, like electronics or music — actually, you can find it at the highest levels of any science or art. Software hackers recognize these kindred spirits elsewhere and may call them ‘hackers’ too — and some claim that the hacker nature is really independent of the particular medium the hacker works in. But in the rest of this document we will focus on the skills and attitudes of software hackers, and the traditions of the shared culture that originated the term ‘hacker’.

There is another group of people who loudly call themselves hackers, but aren’t. These are people (mainly adolescent males) who get a kick out of breaking into computers and phreaking the phone system. Real hackers call these people ‘crackers’ and want nothing to do with them. Real hackers mostly think crackers are lazy, irresponsible, and not very bright, and object that being able to break security doesn’t make you a hacker any more than being able to hotwire cars makes you an automotive engineer. Unfortunately, many journalists and writers have been fooled into using the word ‘hacker’ to describe crackers; this irritates real hackers no end.

The basic difference is this: hackers build things, crackers break them.

If you want to be a hacker, keep reading. If you want to be a cracker, go read the alt.2600 newsgroup and get ready to do five to ten in the slammer after finding out you aren’t as smart as you think you are. And that’s all I’m going to say about crackers.

The Hacker Attitude

1. The world is full of fascinating problems waiting to be solved.

2. No problem should ever have to be solved twice.

3. Boredom and drudgery are evil.

4. Freedom is good.

5. Attitude is no substitute for competence.

Hackers solve problems and build things, and they believe in freedom and voluntary mutual help. To be accepted as a hacker, you have to behave as though you have this kind of attitude yourself. And to behave as though you have the attitude, you have to really believe the attitude.

But if you think of cultivating hacker attitudes as just a way to gain acceptance in the culture, you’ll miss the point. Becoming the kind of person who believes these things is important for you — for helping you learn and keeping you motivated. As with all creative arts, the most effective way to become a master is to imitate the mind-set of masters — not just intellectually but emotionally as well.

Or, as the following modern Zen poem has it:


    To follow the path:
    look to the master,
    follow the master,
    walk with the master,
    see through the master,
    become the master.

So, if you want to be a hacker, repeat the following things until you believe them:

1. The world is full of fascinating problems waiting to be solved.

Being a hacker is lots of fun, but it’s a kind of fun that takes lots of effort. The effort takes motivation. Successful athletes get their motivation from a kind of physical delight in making their bodies perform, in pushing themselves past their own physical limits. Similarly, to be a hacker you have to get a basic thrill from solving problems, sharpening your skills, and exercising your intelligence.

If you aren’t the kind of person that feels this way naturally, you’ll need to become one in order to make it as a hacker. Otherwise you’ll find your hacking energy is sapped by distractions like sex, money, and social approval.

(You also have to develop a kind of faith in your own learning capacity — a belief that even though you may not know all of what you need to solve a problem, if you tackle just a piece of it and learn from that, you’ll learn enough to solve the next piece — and so on, until you’re done.)

2. No problem should ever have to be solved twice.

Creative brains are a valuable, limited resource. They shouldn’t be wasted on re-inventing the wheel when there are so many fascinating new problems waiting out there.

To behave like a hacker, you have to believe that the thinking time of other hackers is precious — so much so that it’s almost a moral duty for you to share information, solve problems and then give the solutions away just so other hackers can solve new problems instead of having to perpetually re-address old ones.

Note, however, that “No problem should ever have to be solved twice.” does not imply that you have to consider all existing solutions sacred, or that there is only one right solution to any given problem. Often, we learn a lot about the problem that we didn’t know before by studying the first cut at a solution. It’s OK, and often necessary, to decide that we can do better. What’s not OK is artificial technical, legal, or institutional barriers (like closed-source code) that prevent a good solution from being re-used and force people to re-invent wheels.

(You don’t have to believe that you’re obligated to give all your creative product away, though the hackers that do are the ones that get most respect from other hackers. It’s consistent with hacker values to sell enough of it to keep you in food and rent and computers. It’s fine to use your hacking skills to support a family or even get rich, as long as you don’t forget your loyalty to your art and your fellow hackers while doing it.)

3. Boredom and drudgery are evil.

Hackers (and creative people in general) should never be bored or have to drudge at stupid repetitive work, because when this happens it means they aren’t doing what only they can do — solve new problems. This wastefulness hurts everybody. Therefore boredom and drudgery are not just unpleasant but actually evil.

To behave like a hacker, you have to believe this enough to want to automate away the boring bits as much as possible, not just for yourself but for everybody else (especially other hackers).

(There is one apparent exception to this. Hackers will sometimes do things that may seem repetitive or boring to an observer as a mind-clearing exercise, or in order to acquire a skill or have some particular kind of experience you can’t have otherwise. But this is by choice — nobody who can think should ever be forced into a situation that bores them.)

4. Freedom is good.

Hackers are naturally anti-authoritarian. Anyone who can give you orders can stop you from solving whatever problem you’re being fascinated by — and, given the way authoritarian minds work, will generally find some appallingly stupid reason to do so. So the authoritarian attitude has to be fought wherever you find it, lest it smother you and other hackers.

(This isn’t the same as fighting all authority. Children need to be guided and criminals restrained. A hacker may agree to accept some kinds of authority in order to get something he wants more than the time he spends following orders. But that’s a limited, conscious bargain; the kind of personal surrender authoritarians want is not on offer.)

Authoritarians thrive on censorship and secrecy. And they distrust voluntary cooperation and information-sharing — they only like ‘cooperation’ that they control. So to behave like a hacker, you have to develop an instinctive hostility to censorship, secrecy, and the use of force or deception to compel responsible adults. And you have to be willing to act on that belief.

5. Attitude is no substitute for competence.

To be a hacker, you have to develop some of these attitudes. But copping an attitude alone won’t make you a hacker, any more than it will make you a champion athlete or a rock star. Becoming a hacker will take intelligence, practice, dedication, and hard work.

Therefore, you have to learn to distrust attitude and respect competence of every kind. Hackers won’t let posers waste their time, but they worship competence — especially competence at hacking, but competence at anything is valued. Competence at demanding skills that few can master is especially good, and competence at demanding skills that involve mental acuteness, craft, and concentration is best.

If you revere competence, you’ll enjoy developing it in yourself — the hard work and dedication will become a kind of intense play rather than drudgery. That attitude is vital to becoming a hacker.

Basic Hacking Skills

1. Learn how to program.

2. Get one of the open-source Unixes and learn to use and run it.

3. Learn how to use the World Wide Web and write HTML.

4. If you don’t have functional English, learn it.

The hacker attitude is vital, but skills are even more vital. Attitude is no substitute for competence, and there’s a certain basic toolkit of skills which you have to have before any hacker will dream of calling you one.

This toolkit changes slowly over time as technology creates new skills and makes old ones obsolete. For example, it used to include programming in machine language, and didn’t until recently involve HTML. But right now it pretty clearly includes the following:

1. Learn how to program.

This, of course, is the fundamental hacking skill. If you don’t know any computer languages, I recommend starting with Python. It is cleanly designed, well documented, and relatively kind to beginners. Despite being a good first language, it is not just a toy; it is very powerful and flexible and well suited for large projects. I have written a more detailed evaluation of Python. Good tutorials are available at the Python web site; there’s an excellent third-party one at Computer Science Circles.

I used to recommend Java as a good language to learn early, but this critique has changed my mind (search for “The Pitfalls of Java as a First Programming Language” within it). A hacker cannot, as they devastatingly put it “approach problem-solving like a plumber in a hardware store”; you have to know what the components actually do. Now I think it is probably best to learn C and Lisp first, then Java.

There is perhaps a more general point here. If a language does too much for you, it may be simultaneously a good tool for production and a bad one for learning. It’s not only languages that have this problem; web application frameworks like RubyOnRails, CakePHP, Django may make it too easy to reach a superficial sort of understanding that will leave you without resources when you have to tackle a hard problem, or even just debug the solution to an easy one.

A better alternative to Java is to learn Go. This relatively new language is pretty easy to move to from Python, and learning it give you a serious leg up on the possible next step, which is learning C. Additionally, one of the unknowns about the next few years is to what extent Go might actually displace C as a systems-programming language. There is a possible future in which that happens over much of C’s traditional range.

If you get into serious programming, you will eventually have to learn C, the core language of Unix. C++ is very closely related to C; if you know one, learning the other will not be difficult. Neither language is a good one to try learning as your first, however. And, actually, the more you can avoid programming in C the more productive you will be.

C is very efficient, and very sparing of your machine’s resources. Unfortunately, C gets that efficiency by requiring you to do a lot of low-level management of resources (like memory) by hand. All that low-level code is complex and bug-prone, and will soak up huge amounts of your time on debugging. With today’s machines as powerful as they are, this is usually a bad tradeoff — it’s smarter to use a language that uses the machine’s time less efficiently, but your time much more efficiently. Thus, Python.

Other languages of particular importance to hackers include Perl and LISP. Perl is worth learning for practical reasons; it’s very widely used for active web pages and system administration, so that even if you never write Perl you should learn to read it. Many people use Perl in the way I suggest you should use Python, to avoid C programming on jobs that don’t require C’s machine efficiency. You will need to be able to understand their code.

LISP is worth learning for a different reason — the profound enlightenment experience you will have when you finally get it. That experience will make you a better programmer for the rest of your days, even if you never actually use LISP itself a lot. (You can get some beginning experience with LISP fairly easily by writing and modifying editing modes for the Emacs text editor, or Script-Fu plugins for the GIMP.)

It’s best, actually, to learn all five of Python, C/C++, Perl, and LISP. Besides being the most important hacking languages, they represent very different approaches to programming, and each will educate you in valuable ways. Go is not quite to the point where it can be included among the most important hacking languages, but it seems headed for that status.

But be aware that you won’t reach the skill level of a hacker or even merely a programmer simply by accumulating languages — you need to learn how to think about programming problems in a general way, independent of any one language. To be a real hacker, you need to get to the point where you can learn a new language in days by relating what’s in the manual to what you already know. This means you should learn several very different languages.

I can’t give complete instructions on how to learn to program here — it’s a complex skill. But I can tell you that books and courses won’t do it — many, maybe most of the best hackers are self-taught. You can learn language features — bits of knowledge — from books, but the mind-set that makes that knowledge into living skill can be learned only by practice and apprenticeship. What will do it is (a) reading code and (b) writing code.

Peter Norvig, who is one of Google’s top hackers and the co-author of the most widely used textbook on AI, has written an excellent essay called Teach Yourself Programming in Ten Years. His “recipe for programming success” is worth careful attention.

Learning to program is like learning to write good natural language. The best way to do it is to read some stuff written by masters of the form, write some things yourself, read a lot more, write a little more, read a lot more, write some more … and repeat until your writing begins to develop the kind of strength and economy you see in your models.

I have had more to say about this learning process in How To Learn Hacking. It’s a simple set of instructions, but not an easy one.

Finding good code to read used to be hard, because there were few large programs available in source for fledgeling hackers to read and tinker with. This has changed dramatically; open-source software, programming tools, and operating systems (all built by hackers) are now widely available. Which brings me neatly to our next topic…

2. Get one of the open-source Unixes and learn to use and run it.

I’ll assume you have a personal computer or can get access to one. (Take a moment to appreciate how much that means. The hacker culture originally evolved back when computers were so expensive that individuals could not own them.) The single most important step any newbie can take toward acquiring hacker skills is to get a copy of Linux or one of the BSD-Unixes, install it on a personal machine, and run it.

Yes, there are other operating systems in the world besides Unix. But they’re distributed in binary — you can’t read the code, and you can’t modify it. Trying to learn to hack on a Microsoft Windows machine or under any other closed-source system is like trying to learn to dance while wearing a body cast.

Under Mac OS X it’s possible, but only part of the system is open source — you’re likely to hit a lot of walls, and you have to be careful not to develop the bad habit of depending on Apple’s proprietary code. If you concentrate on the Unix under the hood you can learn some useful things.

Unix is the operating system of the Internet. While you can learn to use the Internet without knowing Unix, you can’t be an Internet hacker without understanding Unix. For this reason, the hacker culture today is pretty strongly Unix-centered. (This wasn’t always true, and some old-time hackers still aren’t happy about it, but the symbiosis between Unix and the Internet has become strong enough that even Microsoft’s muscle doesn’t seem able to seriously dent it.)

So, bring up a Unix — I like Linux myself but there are other ways (and yes, you can run both Linux and Microsoft Windows on the same machine). Learn it. Run it. Tinker with it. Talk to the Internet with it. Read the code. Modify the code. You’ll get better programming tools (including C, LISP, Python, and Perl) than any Microsoft operating system can dream of hosting, you’ll have fun, and you’ll soak up more knowledge than you realize you’re learning until you look back on it as a master hacker.

For more about learning Unix, see The Loginataka. You might also want to have a look at The Art Of Unix Programming.

The blog Let’s Go Larval! is a window on the learning process of a new Linux user that I think is unusually lucid and helpful. The post How I Learned Linux makes a good starting point.

To get your hands on a Linux, see the Linux Online! site; you can download from there or (better idea) find a local Linux user group to help you with installation.

During the first ten years of this HOWTO’s life, I reported that from a new user’s point of view, all Linux distributions are almost equivalent. But in 2006-2007, an actual best choice emerged: Ubuntu. While other distros have their own areas of strength, Ubuntu is far and away the most accessible to Linux newbies. Beware, though, of the hideous and nigh-unusable “Unity” desktop interface that Ubuntu introduced as a default a few years later; the Xubuntu or Kubuntu variants are better.

You can find BSD Unix help and resources at www.bsd.org.

A good way to dip your toes in the water is to boot up what Linux fans call a live CD, a distribution that runs entirely off a CD or USB stick without having to modify your hard disk. This may be slow, because CDs are slow, but it’s a way to get a look at the possibilities without having to do anything drastic.

I have written a primer on the basics of Unix and the Internet.

I used to recommend against installing either Linux or BSD as a solo project if you’re a newbie. Nowadays the installers have gotten good enough that doing it entirely on your own is possible, even for a newbie. Nevertheless, I still recommend making contact with your local Linux user’s group and asking for help. It can’t hurt, and may smooth the process.

3. Learn how to use the World Wide Web and write HTML.

Most of the things the hacker culture has built do their work out of sight, helping run factories and offices and universities without any obvious impact on how non-hackers live. The Web is the one big exception, the huge shiny hacker toy that even politicians admit has changed the world. For this reason alone (and a lot of other good ones as well) you need to learn how to work the Web.

This doesn’t just mean learning how to drive a browser (anyone can do that), but learning how to write HTML, the Web’s markup language. If you don’t know how to program, writing HTML will teach you some mental habits that will help you learn. So build a home page.

But just having a home page isn’t anywhere near good enough to make you a hacker. The Web is full of home pages. Most of them are pointless, zero-content sludge — very snazzy-looking sludge, mind you, but sludge all the same (for more on this see The HTML Hell Page).

To be worthwhile, your page must have content — it must be interesting and/or useful to other hackers. And that brings us to the next topic…

4. If you don’t have functional English, learn it.

As an American and native English-speaker myself, I have previously been reluctant to suggest this, lest it be taken as a sort of cultural imperialism. But several native speakers of other languages have urged me to point out that English is the working language of the hacker culture and the Internet, and that you will need to know it to function in the hacker community.

Back around 1991 I learned that many hackers who have English as a second language use it in technical discussions even when they share a birth tongue; it was reported to me at the time that English has a richer technical vocabulary than any other language and is therefore simply a better tool for the job. For similar reasons, translations of technical books written in English are often unsatisfactory (when they get done at all).

Linus Torvalds, a Finn, comments his code in English (it apparently never occurred to him to do otherwise). His fluency in English has been an important factor in his ability to recruit a worldwide community of developers for Linux. It’s an example worth following.

Being a native English-speaker does not guarantee that you have language skills good enough to function as a hacker. If your writing is semi-literate, ungrammatical, and riddled with misspellings, many hackers (including myself) will tend to ignore you. While sloppy writing does not invariably mean sloppy thinking, we’ve generally found the correlation to be strong — and we have no use for sloppy thinkers. If you can’t yet write competently, learn to.

Status in the Hacker Culture

1. Write open-source software

2. Help test and debug open-source software

3. Publish useful information

4. Help keep the infrastructure working

5. Serve the hacker culture itself

Like most cultures without a money economy, hackerdom runs on reputation. You’re trying to solve interesting problems, but how interesting they are, and whether your solutions are really good, is something that only your technical peers or superiors are normally equipped to judge.

Accordingly, when you play the hacker game, you learn to keep score primarily by what other hackers think of your skill (this is why you aren’t really a hacker until other hackers consistently call you one). This fact is obscured by the image of hacking as solitary work; also by a hacker-cultural taboo (gradually decaying since the late 1990s but still potent) against admitting that ego or external validation are involved in one’s motivation at all.

Specifically, hackerdom is what anthropologists call a gift culture. You gain status and reputation in it not by dominating other people, nor by being beautiful, nor by having things other people want, but rather by giving things away. Specifically, by giving away your time, your creativity, and the results of your skill.

There are basically five kinds of things you can do to be respected by hackers:

1. Write open-source software

The first (the most central and most traditional) is to write programs that other hackers think are fun or useful, and give the program sources away to the whole hacker culture to use.

(We used to call these works “free software”, but this confused too many people who weren’t sure exactly what “free” was supposed to mean. Most of us now prefer the term “open-source” software).

Hackerdom’s most revered demigods are people who have written large, capable programs that met a widespread need and given them away, so that now everyone uses them.

But there’s a bit of a fine historical point here. While hackers have always looked up to the open-source developers among them as our community’s hardest core, before the mid-1990s most hackers most of the time worked on closed source. This was still true when I wrote the first version of this HOWTO in 1996; it took the mainstreaming of open-source software after 1997 to change things. Today, “the hacker community” and “open-source developers” are two descriptions for what is essentially the same culture and population — but it is worth remembering that this was not always so. (For more on this, see the section called “Historical Note: Hacking, Open Source, and Free Software”.)

2. Help test and debug open-source software

They also serve who stand and debug open-source software. In this imperfect world, we will inevitably spend most of our software development time in the debugging phase. That’s why any open-source author who’s thinking will tell you that good beta-testers (who know how to describe symptoms clearly, localize problems well, can tolerate bugs in a quickie release, and are willing to apply a few simple diagnostic routines) are worth their weight in rubies. Even one of these can make the difference between a debugging phase that’s a protracted, exhausting nightmare and one that’s merely a salutary nuisance.

If you’re a newbie, try to find a program under development that you’re interested in and be a good beta-tester. There’s a natural progression from helping test programs to helping debug them to helping modify them. You’ll learn a lot this way, and generate good karma with people who will help you later on.

3. Publish useful information

Another good thing is to collect and filter useful and interesting information into web pages or documents like Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) lists, and make those generally available.

Maintainers of major technical FAQs get almost as much respect as open-source authors.

4. Help keep the infrastructure working

The hacker culture (and the engineering development of the Internet, for that matter) is run by volunteers. There’s a lot of necessary but unglamorous work that needs done to keep it going — administering mailing lists, moderating newsgroups, maintaining large software archive sites, developing RFCs and other technical standards.

People who do this sort of thing well get a lot of respect, because everybody knows these jobs are huge time sinks and not as much fun as playing with code. Doing them shows dedication.

5. Serve the hacker culture itself

Finally, you can serve and propagate the culture itself (by, for example, writing an accurate primer on how to become a hacker :-)). This is not something you’ll be positioned to do until you’ve been around for while and become well-known for one of the first four things.

The hacker culture doesn’t have leaders, exactly, but it does have culture heroes and tribal elders and historians and spokespeople. When you’ve been in the trenches long enough, you may grow into one of these. Beware: hackers distrust blatant ego in their tribal elders, so visibly reaching for this kind of fame is dangerous. Rather than striving for it, you have to sort of position yourself so it drops in your lap, and then be modest and gracious about your status.

The Hacker/Nerd Connection

Contrary to popular myth, you don’t have to be a nerd to be a hacker. It does help, however, and many hackers are in fact nerds. Being something of a social outcast helps you stay concentrated on the really important things, like thinking and hacking.

For this reason, many hackers have adopted the label ‘geek’ as a badge of pride — it’s a way of declaring their independence from normal social expectations (as well as a fondness for other things like science fiction and strategy games that often go with being a hacker). The term ‘nerd’ used to be used this way back in the 1990s, back when ‘nerd’ was a mild pejorative and ‘geek’ a rather harsher one; sometime after 2000 they switched places, at least in U.S. popular culture, and there is now even a significant geek-pride culture among people who aren’t techies.

If you can manage to concentrate enough on hacking to be good at it and still have a life, that’s fine. This is a lot easier today than it was when I was a newbie in the 1970s; mainstream culture is much friendlier to techno-nerds now. There are even growing numbers of people who realize that hackers are often high-quality lover and spouse material.

If you’re attracted to hacking because you don’t have a life, that’s OK too — at least you won’t have trouble concentrating. Maybe you’ll get a life later on.

Points For Style

Again, to be a hacker, you have to enter the hacker mindset. There are some things you can do when you’re not at a computer that seem to help. They’re not substitutes for hacking (nothing is) but many hackers do them, and feel that they connect in some basic way with the essence of hacking.

  • Learn to write your native language well. Though it’s a common stereotype that programmers can’t write, a surprising number of hackers (including all the most accomplished ones I know of) are very able writers.
  • Read science fiction. Go to science fiction conventions (a good way to meet hackers and proto-hackers).
  • Join a hackerspace and make things (another good way to meet hackers and proto-hackers).
  • Train in a martial-arts form. The kind of mental discipline required for martial arts seems to be similar in important ways to what hackers do. The most popular forms among hackers are definitely Asian empty-hand arts such as Tae Kwon Do, various forms of Karate, Kung Fu, Aikido, or Ju Jitsu. Western fencing and Asian sword arts also have visible followings. In places where it’s legal, pistol shooting has been rising in popularity since the late 1990s. The most hackerly martial arts are those which emphasize mental discipline, relaxed awareness, and precise control, rather than raw strength, athleticism, or physical toughness.
  • Study an actual meditation discipline. The perennial favorite among hackers is Zen (importantly, it is possible to benefit from Zen without acquiring a religion or discarding one you already have). Other styles may work as well, but be careful to choose one that doesn’t require you to believe crazy things.
  • Develop an analytical ear for music. Learn to appreciate peculiar kinds of music. Learn to play some musical instrument well, or how to sing.
  • Develop your appreciation of puns and wordplay.

The more of these things you already do, the more likely it is that you are natural hacker material. Why these things in particular is not completely clear, but they’re connected with a mix of left- and right-brain skills that seems to be important; hackers need to be able to both reason logically and step outside the apparent logic of a problem at a moment’s notice.

Work as intensely as you play and play as intensely as you work. For true hackers, the boundaries between “play”, “work”, “science” and “art” all tend to disappear, or to merge into a high-level creative playfulness. Also, don’t be content with a narrow range of skills. Though most hackers self-describe as programmers, they are very likely to be more than competent in several related skills — system administration, web design, and PC hardware troubleshooting are common ones. A hacker who’s a system administrator, on the other hand, is likely to be quite skilled at script programming and web design. Hackers don’t do things by halves; if they invest in a skill at all, they tend to get very good at it.

Finally, a few things not to do.

  • Don’t use a silly, grandiose user ID or screen name.
  • Don’t get in flame wars on Usenet (or anywhere else).
  • Don’t call yourself a ‘cyberpunk’, and don’t waste your time on anybody who does.
  • Don’t post or email writing that’s full of spelling errors and bad grammar.

The only reputation you’ll make doing any of these things is as a twit. Hackers have long memories — it could take you years to live your early blunders down enough to be accepted.

The problem with screen names or handles deserves some amplification. Concealing your identity behind a handle is a juvenile and silly behavior characteristic of crackers, warez d00dz, and other lower life forms. Hackers don’t do this; they’re proud of what they do and want it associated with their real names. So if you have a handle, drop it. In the hacker culture it will only mark you as a loser.

Historical Note: Hacking, Open Source, and Free Software

When I originally wrote this how-to in late 1996, some of the conditions around it were very different from the way they look today. A few words about these changes may help clarify matters for people who are confused about the relationship of open source, free software, and Linux to the hacker community. If you are not curious about this, you can skip straight to the FAQ and bibliography from here.

The hacker ethos and community as I have described it here long predates the emergence of Linux after 1990; I first became involved with it around 1976, and, its roots are readily traceable back to the early 1960s. But before Linux, most hacking was done on either proprietary operating systems or a handful of quasi-experimental homegrown systems like MIT’s ITS that were never deployed outside of their original academic niches. While there had been some earlier (pre-Linux) attempts to change this situation, their impact was at best very marginal and confined to communities of dedicated true believers which were tiny minorities even within the hacker community, let alone with respect to the larger world of software in general.

What is now called “open source” goes back as far as the hacker community does, but until 1985 it was an unnamed folk practice rather than a conscious movement with theories and manifestos attached to it. This prehistory ended when, in 1985, arch-hacker Richard Stallman (“RMS”) tried to give it a name — “free software”. But his act of naming was also an act of claiming; he attached ideological baggage to the “free software” label which much of the existing hacker community never accepted. As a result, the “free software” label was loudly rejected by a substantial minority of the hacker community (especially among those associated with BSD Unix), and used with serious but silent reservations by a majority of the remainder (including myself).

Despite these reservations, RMS’s claim to define and lead the hacker community under the “free software” banner broadly held until the mid-1990s. It was seriously challenged only by the rise of Linux. Linux gave open-source development a natural home. Many projects issued under terms we would now call open-source migrated from proprietary Unixes to Linux. The community around Linux grew explosively, becoming far larger and more heterogenous than the pre-Linux hacker culture. RMS determinedly attempted to co-opt all this activity into his “free software” movement, but was thwarted by both the exploding diversity of the Linux community and the public skepticism of its founder, Linus Torvalds. Torvalds continued to use the term “free software” for lack of any alternative, but publicly rejected RMS’s ideological baggage. Many younger hackers followed suit.

In 1996, when I first published this Hacker HOWTO, the hacker community was rapidly reorganizing around Linux and a handful of other open-source operating systems (notably those descended from BSD Unix). Community memory of the fact that most of us had spent decades developing closed-source software on closed-source operating systems had not yet begun to fade, but that fact was already beginning to seem like part of a dead past; hackers were, increasingly, defining themselves as hackers by their attachments to open-source projects such as Linux or Apache.

The term “open source”, however, had not yet emerged; it would not do so until early 1998. When it did, most of the hacker community adopted it within the following six months; the exceptions were a minority ideologically attached to the term “free software”. Since 1998, and especially after about 2003, the identification of ‘hacking’ with ‘open-source (and free software) development’ has become extremely close. Today there is little point in attempting to distinguish between these categories, and it seems unlikely that will change in the future.

It is worth remembering, however, that this was not always so.

Other Resources

Paul Graham has written an essay called Great Hackers, and another on Undergraduation, in which he speaks much wisdom.

Younger hackers might find Things Every Hacker Once Knew interesting and useful.

I have also written A Brief History Of Hackerdom.

I have written a paper, The Cathedral and the Bazaar, which explains a lot about how the Linux and open-source cultures work. I have addressed this topic even more directly in its sequel Homesteading the Noosphere.

Rick Moen has written an excellent document on how to run a Linux user group.

Rick Moen and I have collaborated on another document on How To Ask Smart Questions. This will help you seek assistance in a way that makes it more likely that you will actually get it.

If you need instruction in the basics of how personal computers, Unix, and the Internet work, see The Unix and Internet Fundamentals HOWTO.

When you release software or write patches for software, try to follow the guidelines in the Software Release Practice HOWTO.

If you enjoyed the Zen poem, you might also like Rootless Root: The Unix Koans of Master Foo.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q: How do I tell if I am already a hacker?Q: Will you teach me how to hack?Q: How can I get started, then?Q: When do you have to start? Is it too late for me to learn?Q: How long will it take me to learn to hack?Q: Is Visual Basic a good language to start with?Q: Would you help me to crack a system, or teach me how to crack?Q: How can I get the password for someone else’s account?Q: How can I break into/read/monitor someone else’s email?Q: How can I steal channel op privileges on IRC?Q: I’ve been cracked. Will you help me fend off further attacks?Q: I’m having problems with my Windows software. Will you help me?Q: Where can I find some real hackers to talk with?Q: Can you recommend useful books about hacking-related subjects?Q: Do I need to be good at math to become a hacker?Q: What language should I learn first?Q: What kind of hardware do I need?Q: I want to contribute. Can you help me pick a problem to work on?Q: Do I need to hate and bash Microsoft?Q: But won’t open-source software leave programmers unable to make a living?Q: Where can I get a free Unix?

Q:How do I tell if I am already a hacker?
A:Ask yourself the following three questions:Do you speak code, fluently?Do you identify with the goals and values of the hacker community?Has a well-established member of the hacker community ever called you a hacker?If you can answer yes to all three of these questions, you are already a hacker. No two alone are sufficient.The first test is about skills. You probably pass it if you have the minimum technical skills described earlier in this document. You blow right through it if you have had a substantial amount of code accepted by an open-source development project.The second test is about attitude. If the five principles of the hacker mindset seemed obvious to you, more like a description of the way you already live than anything novel, you are already halfway to passing it. That’s the inward half; the other, outward half is the degree to which you identify with the hacker community’s long-term projects.Here is an incomplete but indicative list of some of those projects: Does it matter to you that Linux improve and spread? Are you passionate about software freedom? Hostile to monopolies? Do you act on the belief that computers can be instruments of empowerment that make the world a richer and more humane place?But a note of caution is in order here. The hacker community has some specific, primarily defensive political interests — two of them are defending free-speech rights and fending off “intellectual-property” power grabs that would make open source illegal. Some of those long-term projects are civil-liberties organizations like the Electronic Frontier Foundation, and the outward attitude properly includes support of them. But beyond that, most hackers view attempts to systematize the hacker attitude into an explicit political program with suspicion; we’ve learned, the hard way, that these attempts are divisive and distracting. If someone tries to recruit you to march on your capitol in the name of the hacker attitude, they’ve missed the point. The right response is probably “Shut up and show them the code.”The third test has a tricky element of recursiveness about it. I observed in the section called “What Is a Hacker?” that being a hacker is partly a matter of belonging to a particular subculture or social network with a shared history, an inside and an outside. In the far past, hackers were a much less cohesive and self-aware group than they are today. But the importance of the social-network aspect has increased over the last thirty years as the Internet has made connections with the core of the hacker subculture easier to develop and maintain. One easy behavioral index of the change is that, in this century, we have our own T-shirts.Sociologists, who study networks like those of the hacker culture under the general rubric of “invisible colleges”, have noted that one characteristic of such networks is that they have gatekeepers — core members with the social authority to endorse new members into the network. Because the “invisible college” that is hacker culture is a loose and informal one, the role of gatekeeper is informal too. But one thing that all hackers understand in their bones is that not every hacker is a gatekeeper. Gatekeepers have to have a certain degree of seniority and accomplishment before they can bestow the title. How much is hard to quantify, but every hacker knows it when they see it.
Q:Will you teach me how to hack?
A:Since first publishing this page, I’ve gotten several requests a week (often several a day) from people to “teach me all about hacking”. Unfortunately, I don’t have the time or energy to do this; my own hacking projects, and working as an open-source advocate, take up 110% of my time.Even if I did, hacking is an attitude and skill you basically have to teach yourself. You’ll find that while real hackers want to help you, they won’t respect you if you beg to be spoon-fed everything they know.Learn a few things first. Show that you’re trying, that you’re capable of learning on your own. Then go to the hackers you meet with specific questions.If you do email a hacker asking for advice, here are two things to know up front. First, we’ve found that people who are lazy or careless in their writing are usually too lazy and careless in their thinking to make good hackers — so take care to spell correctly, and use good grammar and punctuation, otherwise you’ll probably be ignored. Secondly, don’t dare ask for a reply to an ISP account that’s different from the account you’re sending from; we find people who do that are usually thieves using stolen accounts, and we have no interest in rewarding or assisting thievery.
Q:How can I get started, then?
A:The best way for you to get started would probably be to go to a LUG (Linux user group) meeting. You can find such groups on the LDP General Linux Information Page; there is probably one near you, possibly associated with a college or university. LUG members will probably give you a Linux if you ask, and will certainly help you install one and get started.Your next step (and your first step if you can’t find a LUG nearby) should be to find an open-source project that interests you. Start reading code and reviewing bugs. Learn to contribute, and work your way in.The only way in is by working to improve your skills. If you ask me personally for advice on how to get started, I will tell you these exact same things, because I don’t have any magic shortcuts for you. I will also mentally write you off as a probable loser – because if you lacked the stamina to read this FAQ and the intelligence to understand from it that the only way in is by working to improve your skills, you’re hopeless.Another interesting possibility is to go visit a hackerspace. There is a burgeoning movement of people creating physical locations – maker’s clubs – where they can hang out to work on hardware and software projects together, or work solo in a cogenial atmosphere. Hackerspaces often collect tools and specialized equipment that would be too expensive or logistically inconvenient for individuals to own. Hackerspaces are easy to find on the Internet; one may be located near you.
Q:When do you have to start? Is it too late for me to learn?
A:Any age at which you are motivated to start is a good age. Most people seem to get interested between ages 15 and 20, but I know of exceptions in both directions.
Q:How long will it take me to learn to hack?
A:That depends on how talented you are and how hard you work at it. Most people who try can acquire a respectable skill set in eighteen months to two years, if they concentrate. Don’t think it ends there, though; in hacking (as in many other fields) it takes about ten years to achieve mastery. And if you are a real hacker, you will spend the rest of your life learning and perfecting your craft.
Q:Is Visual Basic a good language to start with?
A:If you’re asking this question, it almost certainly means you’re thinking about trying to hack under Microsoft Windows. This is a bad idea in itself. When I compared trying to learn to hack under Windows to trying to learn to dance while wearing a body cast, I wasn’t kidding. Don’t go there. It’s ugly, and it never stops being ugly.There is a specific problem with Visual Basic; mainly that it’s not portable. Though there is a prototype open-source implementations of Visual Basic, the applicable ECMA standards don’t cover more than a small set of its programming interfaces. On Windows most of its library support is proprietary to a single vendor (Microsoft); if you aren’t extremely careful about which features you use — more careful than any newbie is really capable of being — you’ll end up locked into only those platforms Microsoft chooses to support. If you’re starting on a Unix, much better languages with better libraries are available. Python, for example.Also, like other Basics, Visual Basic is a poorly-designed language that will teach you bad programming habits. No, don’t ask me to describe them in detail; that explanation would fill a book. Learn a well-designed language instead.One of those bad habits is becoming dependent on a single vendor’s libraries, widgets, and development tools. In general, any language that isn’t fully supported under at least Linux or one of the BSDs, and/or at least three different vendors’ operating systems, is a poor one to learn to hack in.
Q:Would you help me to crack a system, or teach me how to crack?
A:No. Anyone who can still ask such a question after reading this FAQ is too stupid to be educable even if I had the time for tutoring. Any emailed requests of this kind that I get will be ignored or answered with extreme rudeness.
Q:How can I get the password for someone else’s account?
A:This is cracking. Go away, idiot.
Q:How can I break into/read/monitor someone else’s email?
A:This is cracking. Get lost, moron.
Q:How can I steal channel op privileges on IRC?
A:This is cracking. Begone, cretin.
Q:I’ve been cracked. Will you help me fend off further attacks?
A:No. Every time I’ve been asked this question so far, it’s been from some poor sap running Microsoft Windows. It is not possible to effectively secure Windows systems against crack attacks; the code and architecture simply have too many flaws, which makes securing Windows like trying to bail out a boat with a sieve. The only reliable prevention starts with switching to Linux or some other operating system that is designed to at least be capable of security.
Q:I’m having problems with my Windows software. Will you help me?
A:Yes. Go to a DOS prompt and type “format c:”. Any problems you are experiencing will cease within a few minutes.
Q:Where can I find some real hackers to talk with?
A:The best way is to find a Unix or Linux user’s group local to you and go to their meetings (you can find links to several lists of user groups on the LDP site at ibiblio).(I used to say here that you wouldn’t find any real hackers on IRC, but I’m given to understand this is changing. Apparently some real hacker communities, attached to things like GIMP and Perl, have IRC channels now.)
Q:Can you recommend useful books about hacking-related subjects?
A:I maintain a Linux Reading List HOWTO that you may find helpful. The Loginataka may also be interesting.For an introduction to Python, see the tutorial on the Python site.
Q:Do I need to be good at math to become a hacker?
A:No. Hacking uses very little formal mathematics or arithmetic. In particular, you won’t usually need trigonometry, calculus or analysis (there are exceptions to this in a handful of specific application areas like 3-D computer graphics). Knowing some formal logic and Boolean algebra is good. Some grounding in finite mathematics (including finite-set theory, combinatorics, and graph theory) can be helpful.Much more importantly: you need to be able to think logically and follow chains of exact reasoning, the way mathematicians do. While the content of most mathematics won’t help you, you will need the discipline and intelligence to handle mathematics. If you lack the intelligence, there is little hope for you as a hacker; if you lack the discipline, you’d better grow it.I think a good way to find out if you have what it takes is to pick up a copy of Raymond Smullyan’s book What Is The Name Of This Book?. Smullyan’s playful logical conundrums are very much in the hacker spirit. Being able to solve them is a good sign; enjoying solving them is an even better one.
Q:What language should I learn first?
A:HTML if you don’t already know it. There are a lot of glossy, hype-intensive bad HTML books out there, and distressingly few good ones. The one I like best is HTML: The Definitive Guide.But HTML is not a full programming language. When you’re ready to start programming, I would recommend starting with Python. You will hear a lot of people recommending Perl, but it’s harder to learn and (in my opinion) less well designed.C is really important, but it’s also much more difficult than either Python or Perl. Don’t try to learn it first.Windows users, do not settle for Visual Basic. It will teach you bad habits, and it’s not portable off Windows. Avoid.
Q:What kind of hardware do I need?
A:It used to be that personal computers were rather underpowered and memory-poor, enough so that they placed artificial limits on a hacker’s learning process. This stopped being true in the mid-1990s; any machine from an Intel 486DX50 up is more than powerful enough for development work, X, and Internet communications, and the smallest disks you can buy today are plenty big enough.The important thing in choosing a machine on which to learn is whether its hardware is Linux-compatible (or BSD-compatible, should you choose to go that route). Again, this will be true for almost all modern machines. The only really sticky areas are modems and wireless cards; some machines have Windows-specific hardware that won’t work with Linux.There’s a FAQ on hardware compatibility; the latest version is here.
Q:I want to contribute. Can you help me pick a problem to work on?
A:No, because I don’t know your talents or interests. You have to be self-motivated or you won’t stick, which is why having other people choose your direction almost never works.
Q:Do I need to hate and bash Microsoft?
A:No, you don’t. Not that Microsoft isn’t loathsome, but there was a hacker culture long before Microsoft and there will still be one long after Microsoft is history. Any energy you spend hating Microsoft would be better spent on loving your craft. Write good code — that will bash Microsoft quite sufficiently without polluting your karma.
Q:But won’t open-source software leave programmers unable to make a living?
A:This seems unlikely — so far, the open-source software industry seems to be creating jobs rather than taking them away. If having a program written is a net economic gain over not having it written, a programmer will get paid whether or not the program is going to be open-source after it’s done. And, no matter how much “free” software gets written, there always seems to be more demand for new and customized applications. I’ve written more about this at the Open Source pages.
Q:Where can I get a free Unix?
A:If you don’t have a Unix installed on your machine yet, elsewhere on this page I include pointers to where to get the most commonly used free Unix. To be a hacker you need motivation and initiative and the ability to educate yourself. Start now…

Source : http://catb.org/~esr/faqs/hacker-howto.html#basic_skills

Quản trị viên hệ thống Linux


Cuộc sống của một quản trị viên hệ thống Linux

Nếu đang suy nghĩ về việc trở thành quản trị viên hệ thống hoặc tiếp tục sự nghiệp của mình, bạn nên đọc bài viết này, rút ra từ kinh nghiệm của một người trong nghề.

Quản trị hệ thống Linux là một công việc, vừa mang lại niềm vui, tạo ra những thành tựu tuyệt vời nhưng cũng gây ra sự bực bội, thách thức về tinh thần, tẻ nhạt và khiến người admin cảm thấy kiệt sức. Quản trị hệ thống Linux cũng như bất kỳ công việc nào khác, có cả những ngày tốt và những ngày tồi tệ. Giống như hầu hết các quản trị viên hệ thống, bạn phải tự tìm cho mình sự cân bằng phù hợp. Một quản trị viên hệ thống Linux phải thực hiện các nhiệm vụ thường xuyên của mình ở nhiều mức độ khác nhau, liên quan đến tự động hóa và thao tác thủ công, hay thực hiện một số lượng lớn nghiên cứu.

Có hai câu hỏi sẽ được trả lời trong bài viết này. Đầu tiên là “Làm thế nào để một người trở thành quản trị viên hệ thống?” Và thứ hai, “Quản trị viên hệ thống Linux làm nhiệm vụ gì?”.

Trở thành quản trị viên hệ thống

Trở thành quản trị viên hệ thống

Thực tế là không có nơi đào tạo hay lộ trình học thực sự nào cho các quản trị viên hệ thống Linux, vậy làm thế nào để trở thành quản trị viên hệ thống Linux? Hầu hết các quản trị viên hệ thống Linux (gọi tắt là SA – System Administrator) đều bước vào lĩnh vực này một cách tình cờ. Một số quản trị viên đã coi Linux như một ngành phụ, trên con đường trở thành quản trị viên hệ thống Unix, khi sự quan tâm dành cho mảng này tăng lên vào cuối những năm 1990. Tới lúc Linux trở thành một tiêu chuẩn của trung tâm dữ liệu và các phiên bản Unix khác nhau trở nên phổ biến, những người say mê đã chuyển hướng để trở thành quản trị viên Linux.

Nhiều quản trị viên Linux mới bắt đầu lựa chọn công việc này vì sở thích. Một quản trị viên Linux kể rằng, ngay khi nhìn thấy Linux lần đầu tiên vào năm 1995, ông đã bị cuốn hút. Đến tháng 1 năm 1996, ông khởi xướng Linux User’s Group (LUG) ở Tulsa, Oklahoma, xuất phát từ sự thất vọng với Unix Special Interest Group (Unix SIG).

Sự khởi đầu của ông với Linux rất khó khăn. Lần đầu tiên ông chạy Linux là vào đầu năm 1995 khi làm việc tại WorldCom. Người này đã cài đặt một FTP/download server cho đồng nghiệp trong nhóm hỗ trợ desktop của mình. Vài tuần sau, ông được một trong những “bậc thầy” trong nhóm khác cho biết: “Chúng tôi không cho phép Lye-nix xuất hiện trên mạng của mình”. Tuy nhiên, ông không bận tâm về việc điều đó có được phép hay không, vì vậy ông đã giữ máy chủ, nhưng cài đặt Samba trên đó và thay đổi thông tin tiêu đề daemon, để làm cho hệ thống nhỏ của mình trông giống như một máy chủ Windows.

Sau khi rời nhóm hỗ trợ desktop, người này chuyển sang quản trị domain Windows. Ông đã lén cài đặt một hệ thống Red Hat Linux 4.0 và che giấu nó khỏi những con mắt tò mò. Ông cũng đã cài đặt Samba trên đó để “đánh lừa” vị trưởng nhóm khó chịu từng hỏi ông: “Máy chủ Linux đó làm được gì cho chúng ta?”. Câu trả lời của ông là “Nó không làm được gì cho tất cả mọi người, nhưng rất nhiều đối với bản thân tôi. Tôi sử dụng nó cho việc nghiên cứu”. Ông đã giữ hệ thống Red Hat Linux cho đến khi chuyển sang một nhóm khác. Linux vẫn không được phép sử dụng trên mạng công ty nơi ông làm việc. Nhưng ông vẫn không quan tâm. Ông không dự định ngồi “chết dí” với Windows 3.11 và Windows 95, trong khi phần còn lại của thế giới đang nhiệt liệt ủng hộ Linux.

Ngay cả việc bắt đầu LUG cũng khó khăn. Vị quản trị viên này chỉ thu hút được khoảng 8 người quan tâm. Sau gần một năm, người này quá nản lòng để tiếp tục và đã truyền “ngọn đuốc” LUG cho một thành viên khác trong nhóm. Nhóm LUG này vẫn hoạt động cho đến ngày hôm nay và họp mặt mỗi tháng một lần trong khuôn viên trường Đại học Tulsa. Họ vẫn tổ chức các ngày hội và rất nhiều hoạt động. Và, dù bạn có tin hay không, Linux hiện là hệ điều hành *nix chính trong trung tâm dữ liệu mà trước đây từng không cho phép sử dụng nó. Những người làm việc ở đó chưa từng đưa ra lời xin lỗi chính thức về việc này và cũng chẳng ai nói: “Này, Ken, anh đã đúng về Linux”.

Khác với việc “lén” bước vào nghề quản trị hệ thống Linux như trường hợp trên đây, con đường trực tiếp và được khuyến nghị hơn vẫn là tự học, nhưng hãy tham gia một số lớp Linux chính thức để chứng minh các mốc học tập của mình. Tự học là điều tuyệt vời, nhưng bạn sẽ vẫn chỉ là người đam mê hoặc có sở thích, trừ khi có thể chứng minh kiến ​​thức của mình bằng các chứng chỉ hoặc một số bằng chứng khác. Tự học là điều đáng khen ngợi nhưng bạn sẽ có những khoảng trống đáng kể trong quá trình học. Bạn nên đặt việc lấy được chứng chỉ làm mục tiêu, cho dù bạn có thực sự quan tâm đến việc đó hay không. Để có một khởi đầu tốt đẹp, hãy xem các video của Giáo sư Messer trên YouTube.

Ngoài ra, sử dụng các tài nguyên miễn phí như Opensource.com và Enable Sysadmin để nâng cao kiến ​​thức và mở rộng cơ hội học tập.

Quản trị viên hệ thống Linux làm nhiệm vụ gì?

Quản trị viên hệ thống Linux làm nhiệm vụ gì?

Một quản trị viên hệ thống Linux phải đóng nhiều vai trò khác nhau và môi trường càng nhỏ, bạn sẽ càng có nhiều vai trò cần đảm đương hơn. Quản trị Linux bao gồm sao lưu, khôi phục file, khôi phục sau thảm họa, xây dựng hệ thống mới, bảo trì phần cứng, tự động hóa, bảo trì người dùng, quản lý hệ thống file, cài đặt và cấu hình ứng dụng, quản lý bảo mật hệ thống và lưu trữ. Quản trị hệ thống bao gồm mọi khía cạnh của quản lý phần cứng và phần mềm cho cả hệ thống vật lý và ảo.

Bên cạnh đó, bạn cũng cần một nền tảng kiến ​​thức rộng về cấu hình mạng, ảo hóa, khả năng tương tác và thậm chí là cả các hệ điều hành Windows. Một quản trị viên hệ thống Linux cần có một số kiến ​​thức kỹ thuật về bảo mật mạng, tường lửa, cơ sở dữ liệu và tất cả các khía cạnh của mạng đang làm việc.

Lý do là, mặc dù nhiệm vụ chủ yếu của bạn là quản trị viên hệ thống Linux, nhưng bạn đồng thời cũng là thành viên của nhóm hỗ trợ lớn hơn, thường phải làm việc cùng nhau để giải quyết các vấn đề phức tạp. Bảo mật, dưới hình thức này hay hình thức khác, thường là gốc rễ của các vấn đề mà một nhóm hỗ trợ phải đối mặt. Một người dùng có thể không có quyền truy cập phù hợp hoặc được cấp quyền truy cập quá nhiều. Một daemon có thể không có quyền chính xác để ghi vào thư mục nhật ký. Một ngoại lệ tường lửa chưa được lưu vào cấu hình đang chạy của thiết bị mạng. Có hàng trăm điểm lỗi trong mạng và công việc của bạn là giúp xác định vị trí, rồi giải quyết những lỗi đó.

Quản trị hệ thống Linux cũng yêu cầu bạn luôn đi đầu trong việc áp dụng những phương pháp thực tế tốt nhất, tìm hiểu phần mềm mới, duy trì các bản vá, đọc và tuân thủ những thông báo bảo mật, cũng như áp dụng các bản cập nhật phần cứng. Một ngày của quản trị viên hệ thống rất bận rộn. Trong thực tế, bạn không bao giờ thực sự kết thúc được mọi công việc. Trở thành quản trị viên hệ thống là một công việc 24/7, diễn ra liên tục 365 ngày, sẽ gây tổn hại cho bạn, cả về thể chất và tinh thần.

Đâu là phần khó nhất của công việc?

Đâu là phần khó nhất của công việc?

Làm các công việc liên quan đến kỹ thuật tương đối dễ dàng. Nhưng đối phó với những người liên quan đến công việc ấy mới thực sự khó khăn. Nghe có vẻ khủng khiếp nhưng đó là sự thật. Một mặt, bạn phải đối phó với quản lý của mình (điều này không phải lúc nào cũng dễ dàng). Bạn là người bị khiển trách khi mọi thứ có vấn đề và khi mọi thứ đi đúng hướng, thì đó “chỉ là một phần công việc của bạn”.

Những người đồng nghiệp dường như cũng không làm cho cuộc sống của một quản trị viên trở nên tốt đẹp hơn. Bạn sẽ đối phó với những đồng nghiệp lười biếng, không có động lực thường xuyên đến mức cảm thấy như mình đang tự mình gánh vác tất cả mọi việc vậy. Không phải tất cả đồng nghiệp đều xấu. Một số người đồng nghiệp rất siêng năng và chủ động. Thật khó để thực hiện công việc của mình và sau đó gánh phần trách nhiệm là đảm bảo mọi người khác cũng làm tốt việc của họ.

Rồi sau đó là người dùng. Một người làm công việc quản trị viên hệ thống từng nói: “Bạn biết đấy, đây sẽ là một công việc tuyệt vời nếu tôi không phải giao tiếp với người dùng”. Nhưng nói đi thì cũng phải nói lại, không có người dùng thì quản trị viên cũng chẳng có việc để làm. Đối phó với máy tính rất dễ dàng, nhưng đối phó với con người mới thực sự khó khăn. Học cách hít thở, mỉm cười và tuân thủ nguyên tắc, nếu bạn muốn sống sót, cũng như duy trì sự tỉnh táo của mình.

Trở thành quản trị viên hệ thống Linux là một công việc hữu ích, nhưng kèm với đó là rất nhiều trách nhiệm. Công việc này đôi khi khó chịu, có lúc lại thực sự thú vị. Các quản trị viên hệ thống Linux đến từ nhiều nền tảng khác nhau. Họ cũng là những người sáng tạo và thú vị nhất trong giới CNTT. Các quản trị viên hệ thống Linux có thể là nghệ sĩ, đầu bếp, nhà sản xuất bia, nhà làm phim, nhà văn, nhà sản xuất đồ nội thất, đấu sĩ, võ sĩ và hàng tá sở thích kỳ lạ khác.

Quản trị hệ thống không phải là nhiệm vụ dễ dàng. Nó dành cho những người muốn giải quyết các vấn đề phức tạp và cải thiện trải nghiệm điện toán cho mọi người trên mạng của mình. Đó là một công việc đáng được trân trọng.

Chấn Phong – Quantrimang